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Fingerprints & Palmar Dermatoglyphics

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The scientific study of papillary ridges of the hands and feet is credited as beginning with the work of Joannes Evangelista Purkinje, a Czech physiologist and biologist in 1823.(1) Fingerprints had attracted Grew,(2) Bidloo,(3) Malpighius(4) as long ago as 1680's. Cummins and Midlo mention Hintze, Albinus, Mayer, Schröter, and Bell.(5) But the first attempt to systematically categorize fingerprint patterns is found in the work of Purkinje. He used a nine pattern classification. Little was done following Purkinje's initial paper until 1880 when two papers written Henry Faulds and W. J. Herschel appeared in Nature recommending the use of fingerprints for personal identification.(6) Herschel reported actually using this method of identification in India. Faulds reported his interest in fingerprints dated from finding impressions of them on ancient Japanese pottery.

In 1892 Sir Francis Galton published his classic treaties on fingerprints.(7) While much of Galton's work was directed towards fingerprint identification uses, he also pursued the subject as a biologist interested in expanding Purkinje's nine finger patterns in his own classification of the fingerprints and the hand. He coined a number of new terms in the field.(8) He also explored studies of the hereditary aspects of fingerprints, investigating comparisons of siblings, twins and genetically unrelated individuals and was the first to report concordance of papillary ridge patterns among relatives. This opened the field as a useful tool in anthropology.

Dermal palmer and plantar ridges are highly useful in biological studies. Their notably variable characteristics are not duplicated in other people, even in monozygotic twins or even in the same person, from location to location. Because dermal ridges are found on a number of animals, it will be interesting to observe whether dermal patterns are replicated in cloning and if they vary, how they vary. The details of these ridges are permanent. Yet while the individual characteristics are variable, that diversity falls within pattern limits that permit systematic classification.(9)

In the early twentieth century an American, Harris Hawthorne Wilder, pioneered comprehensive studies of the methodology, inheritance and racial variation of palmer and planter papillary ridge patterns as well as fingerprints. He began to publish a series of papers on these subjects in 1902 and continued publication through 1916. These represented the first serious study of palmer and plantar dermatoglyphics.(10) His wife, Inez Whipple-Wilder published the first serious study of non-human epidermal ridges in 1904.(11) Further important genetic studies of fingerprints in the first quarter of the twentieth century were made by the Norwegian Kristine Bonnevie publishing in 1924.(12)

The second quarter of the twentieth century, the field was dominated by Harold Cummins, sometime professor of Microscopic Anatomy at Tulane University. In 1926(13) he coined the word dermatoglyphics and used it at the annual meeting of the American Association of Anatomists. It appears in the same year in a paper written with his collaborator Charles Midlo, M.D..(14) That term, dermatoglyphics, is used to this date in describing the scientific fields of study of the palmer and plantar ridges of the hands and feet. In 1929, he together with others, including Midlo and the Wilders, published one of the most widely referenced papers on dermatoglyphic methodology to date.(15) Over the years he, alone and with collaborators, published numerous studies in the field as well as his now famous 1943 book, Finger Prints, Palms and Soles, a bible in the field of dermatoglyphics,(16) which he dedicated to the pioneer Harris Hawthorne Wilder.

Cummins was interested in psychology reflected by the hand. By the time of his 1943 publication he was familiar with the work of dactologists. Dactylomancy was the practice of predicting the human condition and the future in accordance with the number of whorls and loops on the fingers of the subject. Either Cummins or Midlo had this done in 1935. It is interesting to note for our future studies that the dactologist who read one of those authors related whorls to 'tenacity, stamina and stick-to-it-iveness.'(17) The authors concluded that character and temperament might well be correlated to dermatoglyphic observations. They quote both Takashima and Kojima concerning character traits found in relationship to fingerprints.(18)

After Cummins and Midlo, the scientific community seems to have overlooked the input of the fingerprint readers. Palmistry fortune tellers, also known as cheirologists, were dismissed in 1973 by L. S. Penrose, a giant in the field in the third quarter of the twentieth century, because he believed that they made no use of the fine dermal ridges which formed the basis of the science of dermatoglyphics.(19)

Penrose was in error, but his error may be why we see little impact from the studies of 'cheirologists' on the work of the 'scientific' students of dermatoglyphics. The students of hand prophecy have long studied the significance of dermatoglyphic patterns. Mavalwala(20) describes a two volume Japanese manuscript by Ashizuka-Sai Shofou dating from 1820 that lists thirty-two different types of whorls and their incidence in various combinations on the five fingers.

There is a long history in India and China of the use of fingerprints as indications or attributes or character traits. Folk lore from both India and China have traditions of reading certain attributes or abilities from fingerprints. Before we become amused at the tendency to find significance in the counted number of prints, we note that such an approach is often used in scientific studies of the searching for meaningful relationships of fingerprints as genetic and/or chronic health markers. So while the conclusions drawn in Chinese and Hindu folk ways may be quaint, their methods of analysis still persist.

Chinese folk fingerprint formula(21)
One whorl indicates poverty
Two whorls indicate riches
Three and four whorls good aspect to open a pawnshop
Five whorls for a mediator
Six whorls for a thief;
Seven whorls very bad, indicates catastrophes;
Eight whorls and you will eat chaff;
Nine whorls with a loop and there will be no work for you to do, and plenty of food till old age;

Hindu Folk fingerprint formulae(22)

The Hindu formula concerns three types of prints: the Shankh which resembles the ulnar and radial loop; the Chakra or whorl; and the Shakti resembling the composite. These are the ridge patterns recognized in the Hindu school of palmistry according to Dr. M. Katakkar, one of the leading contemporary authorities on that school of palmistry.
When the loop is found on:
One finger, the subject is happy;
But on two Fingers, it is not a favorable sign; and
On three fingers it is a bad sign;
When found only on four fingers it is not a good omen; and when found on five fingers it is not auspicious;
But it is a sign of prowess if found on six fingers; and
When placed on seven fingers live in kingly comfort;
While on eight fingers one is as noble as a king; and
On nine fingers one must live like a king;

But when the loop is found on:
Jupiter (No. 2) finger we have the unsteady spendthrift; yet
Moved to the Saturn (No. 3) finger and it symbolizes many accomplishments of a sage person with a scientific outlook;
Yet poor is he with this print on Apollo (No. 4) finger as he will loose all his wealth in business; and
If found on Mercury, (No. 5) the losses will be in manufacturing.

When the whorl is found on:
Two fingers indicates honors in the courts of kings;
Three fingers is a sign the subject will become wealthy; but
Four fingers the subject will become a pauper;
Five fingers indicates a hedonist;
Six fingers indicates passion satisfied; while
Seven fingers is a sign of virtue;
Eight fingers indicates one prone to disease;
Nine fingers predicts the rise of a king; while
Ten fingers is the sign of the higher man, the Brahman who realizes self.

But when the whorl is found on:
The thumb (finger No. 1), and the life line (thenar crease) is long and strong, the subject will inherit property.
Jupiter finger, then the subject will benefit through relations with friends;
On Saturn the benefit comes from the church, religion or on religious authority;
On Apollo the whorl indicates benefit through trade and one who enjoys prestige and happiness;
On Mercury it is a sign of benefits to be found in manufacturing, science and authorship.

When composites are found on:
One finger such a person is very happy;
On two fingers the subject is an orator;
On three fingers we find a very rich subject; while
Virtuous is the subject with the Shakti on four fingers;
The philosopher (vedantin) is found when five composites are seen; and
If found on six fingers, such a subject possesses high level thinking ability;
Should it be found on seven or more fingers, they are the sign of success in life.

triradiusActually, modern investigators of Palmistry had been expressing an interest in the dermal ridges since the turn of the twentieth century. Comte de Saint-Germain published observations on the relationship of palmer apices (triradii) and distal mounts in 1897-98.(23) (See figure 3) William G. Benham, the noted American palmist, wrote in his treatise on the subject published in 1900 that the dermal ridges that formed an apex under each finger could be used to find the exact center of each mount under the fingers and if it was displaced under the finger, that displacement could be used to indicate influences on the subject's character.(24) Apparently as he wrote he hadn't realized that sometimes there might be two apices under fingers and at other times no apex would be found. An apex is known in dermatoglyphics as a triradius. The FBI calls the triradius the delta, as have a number of fingerprint experts.(25)

By the 1930's the English palmist Noel Jaquin, founder of the Society for the Study of Physiological Patterns, (SSPP)(26) was studying character traits for five different fingerprint patterns, the loop, whorl, arch, tented arch and composite.(27) In 1940 he published his conclusions from his studies.(28) Vera Compton continued these studies and published her views in 1951.(29) Yusuke Miyamoto proposed character trait recognition based on his understanding of some eastern philosophies and various types of fingerprints in 1963.(30) Byrle B. Hutchinson reported in 1967 that the SSPP had collected a library of prints in its efforts to aid the interpretation of these markings.(31) She further interpreted dermatoglyphic markings based upon these files and her own extensive observations.(32) Dr. Eugene Scheimann, M.D. mentioned them in his work of medical palmistry in 1969.(33) Seven years after Hutchinson's work, the first two works of the American, Beverly C. Jaegers, appeared in 1974 discussing her own findings on psychological characteristics indicated by dermatoglyphic markings of the hand.(34) Fred Gettings(35) also discussed the subject in 1965.

Since the works of Jaquin, Compton, Miyamoto, Hutchinson, Jaegers and Gettings there have been numerous authors in the field of cheirology who have discussed human psychological characteristic findings related to dermatoglyphic patterns of the hand including Elizabeth Brenner,(36) Dennis Fairchild,(37) Carol Hellings White,(38) David Brandon-Jones,(39) Enid Hoffman,(40) Darlene Hansen,(41) Hachiro Asano,(42) Andrew Fitzherbert,(43) Sasha Fenton and Malcolm Wright,(44) Terrence Dukes,(45) Nathaniel Altman along with Dr. Eugene Scheimann, M.D.,(46) and with Nathaniel Altman,(47) Paul Gabriel Tesla,(48) Rita Robinson,(49) Richard Webster,(50) Moshe Zwang,(51) Xiao-Fan Zong and Gary Liscum,(52) Ray Douglas,(53) and Lori Reid.(54) It would be foolish to discount these observations. While their observations are published in 'Palmistry' books, their observations represent tens of thousands of hours of 'clinical' observations and interviews with tens of thousands of subjects. Each of these authors have developed fine eyes for recognizing dermatoglyphic patterns, or at least some of them, through years of practice. Many of them have proven over the years to be good judges of character. Most of these authors deal with fingerprints, some deal with special loops and whorls or other dermatoglyphic markings on the palm and one, Tesla, tries to address the entire palmer dermatoglyphic picture. One of the authors of this work has summarized many of the findings of these people as well as his own 'clinical' observations in his own work.(55)

The works by Dr. Eugene Scheimann, M.D., and by Xiao-Fan Zong and Gary Liscum are works written by authors trained in western and eastern medicine. In addition to these works there is the mixture of science and cheirology displayed in the works of Dr. Charlotte Wolf dating from the 1940's,(56)and more recently those of Arnold Holtzman, Ph.D.,(57) and Yael Haft-Pomrock.(58) Dr. Wolfe traced her psycho-physiological studies of the hand back to the works of Carl Gustav Carus(59) in the middle of the nineteenth century and N. Vashide(60) at the beginning of the twentieth century and on to the psychiatrist Ernst Krestchemer in the 1930's(61). Krestchemer and Adolf Friedemann(62), professors at Tübingen and Freiburg investigated correlations between hand form and mental illness. More recently Arnold Holtzman and Yael Haft-Pomrock of Israel have actually used such analysis in their psychological practices.

Carl Carus divided the hand into four types, elementary, motoric, sensitive and psychic. Sorell(63), and Wolff(64), have both used this approach. Each of these types of hands reflect certain human characteristics. A description of the Carus system is also found in the books of Fred Gettings (mentioned above) and by Francis King(65). Asano(66) also describes this system but does not mention Carl Carus. Instead he calls this the system used to point out personality differences in Charlotte Wolff's study.

Asano related the Carus method to that developed Ernest Kretschemer(67) and W. Sheldon. That method provides for the correlation of personality to physical types and biological conditions. The system is referred to as morpho-psychology was used sometime in France and Switzerland for psychological diagnosis. Asano correlated the names of types from the two systems: Wolff's simple fleshy to Kretschemer's pyknic, Wolff's motor bony to Kretschemer's athletic, and Wolff's long sensitive to his leptosomatic.

Noel Jaquin began to speculate about the psychological connections of fingerprints and individual subjects in print in 1933 as he wondered whether the whorl pattern, then commonly found on the prints of certain types of criminals, indicated some defect of moral perception that he would attribute to some psychological deficiency.(68) In that study he divided the prints into five generalized types that he would use for later study and reference in his work: The loop, arch, tented arch, whorl and composite. By the end of that decade he was to publish his conclusions regarding the psychological significance of each of those patterns.(69) Jaquin assigned these general characteristics to each of his five fingerprints:
loopLoop: Mental and emotional elasticity with possible lack of concentration. Adaptable, versatile and emotionally responsive. (Figure 4)

archArch: Self contained and repressive. Secretive in self defense. Naturally suspicious. Resentful of others achievements who did not posses for their own shortcomings that might bar achievement. Repressive of emotions. (Simple arch figure 5)

tentedarchTented Arch: Sensitive and emotional with 'artistic' temperament with the appreciation but perhaps not the ability or commitment. Idealistic. Impulsive. High degree of emotional elasticity, high strung nervous system, to sensitive. (Tented arch figure 6)

Whorl: Independent, original, very individualistic. Emotional elasticity determined by selfish needs or desires and limited by mental horizons. Secretive, suspicious. While they may appear conventional, they will disregard convention when it suits their purpose (Figures 7 and 8).

Composite: Practical, material minded. But as the pattern is not completely rounded, the tend to be muddled. Critical and resentful, repressive, lacking elasticity. (Figure 9)

By 1958 Jaquin had added that each fingerprint should be interpreted in the light of those characteristics that are recognized in relation to the hand and finger upon which it is found. He added a lack of spontaneity to the arch print and appeared more comfortable with finding those with tented arches as very artistic or musical.(70)

Vera Compton, publishing in 1953,(71) followed Jaquin's lead on the psychology of the prints. she looked to the location of the core or center of the print to indicate whether the person was balanced, introvert (towards the little finger) or extravert (towards the thumb). She observed that those with all whorls were the died in the wool individualists. She also observed whorls on the palm of the hand and believed that they intensified any psychological aspect associated with the part of the hand they were found on.

Fred Gettings(72)wrote in his 1965 publication that he was influenced by the Japanese folk lore traditions expressed in European translations of the work of Kojima. He recognized three essential types of prints, whorl, loop and arch. The arch he found to be a regressive sign of a crude, insensitive and hard heartened type of subject. This is softened if the arch is tented. He found subjects with arches defiantly stubborn and if they have arches on most of the fingers, they tend to be rebellious against even the simplest of social conventions. Radial loops he described similarly to his description of whorls, indicating great originality. Because ulnar loops were so common, he inferred it represented the conventional,,unoriginal type of person. He read little into that formation. Whorls indicate more psychological complexity. Reading whorls by the finger, he found that one whorl on the hand located on the little finger would indicate individuality in relationships, unconventional patterns in sex and money. A singular whorl on the ring finger would indicate originality in self expression. He believed that the whorl isolated those characteristics related to the particular finger it occupied and invested those qualities with particular importance.

Beryl B. Hutchinson publishing in 1967(73) observed that those at the S.S.P.P. believed that the dermatoglyphic patterning demonstrated the individual's personality tools inherited from birth. She noted that if the patterning of the fingerprints was mor distal, the personality would more likely be expressed through theory, abstract thought and ideas, if not ideals. A more proximal placement of the center of the print would result in the personality trait being expressed in a more practical or physical way.

Hutchinson recognized the five fingerprints of Jaquin and Compton but expanded the number of patterns to six and recognized wider variety both in patterns and in their meanings dependent upon the locations where they were found. She recognized a difference between radial and ulnar loops. In the whorl pattern she recognized a difference between concentric circles and the shell pattern. She also recognized the Peacock's eye as a compound of the whorl and the loop, being a loop with an eye in it.

Loops: she agreed that these were the most frequently found patterns and indicated a graceful, adaptable outlook on life. She distinguished between the radial loop (that proceeds from the direction of the thumb like a lariat thrown in the direction of the little finger) and the ulnar loop that travels in the opposite direction. She noted that the radial loop was most frequently found on the index finger (No. 2) and the thumb but rarely on the other fingers. Those with radial loops appear to be more adaptable so long as the choice is from their own interests, while those with ulnar loops are more apt to act on suggestions from fortune or third persons.

She began to distinguish characteristics of behavior dependant upon where the pattern was found. Thus a loop on the right index finger of a right hander indicated one who could improvise and act in various capacities. If that right handed person has an arch or whorl on the right index finger but a loop on the left index finger, then he is more likely to be able to find his way around fixed obstacles. loops on the middle finger can indicate open mindedness in areas metaphysics and religion and one conversant with a wide variety of topics. Loops on the ring finger indicate an appreciation for fashion and new ideas that conform to the owners conceptions of beauty. Ease of expression is aided by ulnar loops on the little finger. she had at the time never seen a radial loop on the ulnar finger.

She felt that thumb loops showed that will could be easily and variously expressed if the thumb showed there was will power to be expressed. She observed that persons with whorls on their other fingers who had loops on their thumbs should be able to work well with others as the can adapt to the individual vagaries of committees and patrons yet keep their objectives intact.

targetwhorlWhorls: The whorl is sometimes considered a fixed sign, most often found on the ring finger (No. 4) and also frequently encountered on the thumb and the index finger. She distinguished between the whorl formed by concentric circles and the whorl that looks like a spiral or shell. The distinction was that while both patterns carry the same usual meanings, those evidenced by the spiral or shell will be less intense. Like Jaquin and Compton before her the whorl is the mark of the individualist.

spiralwhorlThose with whorls take time to train but once trained can respond as if by instinct, very quickly. Their decisions cannot be hurried. Whorls on the index finger show the individualist. It the whorl is on the right index finger, but there is a loop on the left index finger, then there will be more flexibility of choice. With the whorl on both index fingers, the person must not only fid his or her own niche, but they must believe that no one else can fill it, or at least fill at as well, and that it has a community benefit.

Whorls on the middle finger will evidence subjects who have strong ideas on philosophy and these self determined persons may be good at original research. A loop on one of the fingers will broaden the scope of vision. These subjects often have very sincere, even if unorthodox, commitments on religion.

Whorls on the ring finger indicate selectivity in concepts of beauty and happiness. This person will follow his or her own preferences and will not be dissuaded no matter how unorthodox his choice or approach. A loop on one of the fingers will allow a wider selectivity of personal choice.

Little finger whorls evidence subjects who will take painstaking care with the organization of anything undertaken. while one might suspect a gift of oratory, this will only be experienced when the subject is deeply moved. Otherwise, they may be loth to speak, preferring to be 'the power behind the throne.'

Whorled thumbs indicate strength in behavior which may be mediated if on thumb has a loop.

Arch: She finds this print, (figure 5) especially on the index finger, as indicative of people who are the salt of the earth. The key words are trustworthy, capable, ability to cope, courage and reliability. If found on the index finger, it will impart these qualities to any loop or whorl print found on the same finger of the other hand.

The serious drawback of arches is lack of ability to express inner feelings and personal thoughts. This is aggravated if there are four or more arches. They may be able to express themselves better through writing and sketching.

compositeArches found on the middle finger indicate persons with a pragmatic approach to religion, does it improve life, make it better. They approach investments and business the same way. This pragmatism will express itself in the arts in some useful way if the print is found on the third finger. While seldom found on the fourth and fifth fingers, if found on the fifth fingers they tend to be part of a set of arches and seem to increase the reticence of the subject and restrict artistic expression. On the thumb, they frequently accompany a strong will. Again efficiency and practicality rule. They can indicate constructive effort.

Composite: Hutchinson agrees on divided thought patterns, difficult choices and inner conflict. She sees some use in the pattern on the index finger of lawyers or administrators who need to see both sides of a question. When the patterns are large and easily apparent, expect both lines of though to be expressed, so that the subject may find external conflict. with small composite patterns, the subject may suffer from reservations in their responses. Found on the middle finger will show conflict between material and spiritual values. (Figure 9) This is also known as a double loop whorl in F.B.I. textbooks.

Tented Arch: Enthusiasm reigns here, especially where they are found most frequently on the index finger. (Figure 6) When found on the middle finger, one may encounter the enthusiastic convert or follower. she thought it might indicate a gift for music if found on the ring finger but had no proof at the time.
peacockeyeCompound Patterns: Here Hutchinson adds a new pattern, the loop with an whorl or eye in it. (Figure 10) She finds this combines the charm of the loop with the selectivity and discernment of the whorl. Also, as a curious aside, when found on the ring finger, it has indicated much luck in dangerous situations. (I and others I know have found the same curious reaction which may indicate some as yet unknown ability to anticipate and cope within a dangerous situation). The compound is also know as a central pocket loop whorl in F.B.I. textbooks.

Apices: Hutchinson's work also considered various patterns formed by dermal ridges of the palm.(74) She made detailed observations of the psychological significance of the placement of the Apices, the location of the triradii below the fingers and on the proximal palm in the center and on the hypothenar eminence (a, b, c, d, t or pmt and tb or bt). (Figure 11) She also studied unusual patterns formed in various places on some palms and their traditional and psychological meanings. These included various loops found on the palm between the fingers, in the center of the palm and on the thenar and hypothenar eminences. She is the first cheirologist we have found to publish in depth on these points.

She used the main line patterns of the palm, a major tool in dermatoglyphics, to locate the triradii. Unlike the scientific students of dermatoglyphics, she did not make any point of the destinations of these main lines. She was more interested in the exact location of the triradii, in relation to near hand features, the fingers for those under the fingers, the base and center of the palm in relation to the t and whether a line from or through or through the tb. She felt that the ideal lateral placement for the triradii under the fingers was directly beneath the midline of each finger except the 5th (little) finger where it should be found 'aligned with the inner side of the little finger.' (In reading her work one must constantly remind oneself that she starts numbering the fingers from the index finger, not the thumb.)

Beryl Hutchinson was also interested in how high the triradii were. If there were seven or fewer ridge lines separating it from the palmar-phalangeal crease then the apex could be considered high but if there were fourteen or more lines separating it from the proximal finger crease then the placement was low. The placement of these apices evidenced the manner of the character influence, 'instinctive ways of thought,' represented by that particular area of the hand which might otherwise be hidden by other markers of character in the hands. She appeared to be greatly influenced by knowledge of Indian schools of palmistry available to her at the time.

triradiiShe felt that the location of A, the triradii under the index finger (or what palmist call the Mount of Jupiter), was one of the most important indicators of character and expected behavior. Personal integrity, adherence to a personal code of honor, was indicated by a centrally placed apex. It the sign leans towards the middle finger, then this personal code will yield to the needs of practicality, especially in the needs of family or others who may depend upon the subject. When it is placed in the opposite direction, the personal code may yield to the sense of adventure and perhaps irresponsibility. The high and low placement on a b c and d follows the analysis of the fingerprint, intellectual for high, practical for low.

Hutchinson observed that the b triradius (below the middle finger on what palmist call the Mount of Apollo) was always higher than the others, so she believed that its relative position should be counted by fewer ridge lines to the finger. She found good judgment on those with centrally placed apices but that those whose apex leaned towards the ring finger seemed to be ill advised in financial affairs. she had at the time not seen one leaning towards the thumb. If both the apex and the middle finger lean towards the ring finger she found this related to persons with problems of duty versus happiness. She did follow the main line from b to see if it was linked to c or d. It a link could be found, then she that this lent support for the serious creation or construction of writers, speakers and artists.

The c triradius is located under the ring finger on what the palmist call the Mount of Apollo. She noted it was frequently drawn towards the radial (thumb) side of the hand but could on occasion be found in the opposite direction when the triradii are duplicated as the result of a loop being formed on the palm between the ring and little finger. As the loop had a meaning of its own, no special meaning was attributed to the ulnar triradii. She taught that the high apex was of benefit to the 'artist in any branch of expression.' She discussed a curious loop sort of form in the triradius that members of the S.S.P.P. attributed to a devotion and skill with animals.

She taught that the nearer the d triradius was to the center line under the little finger the more the subject appreciated the meaning of words, but not necessarily the lyricism of them. This is in line with the observations that the language center of the brain does not control the poetry which is more under the control of that center of the brain that is involved with syncopation, rhythm aspects of sound. She found in looking for harmony within the person, that one should also check the comparative height of this apex with the one under the index finger and the closer they were to the same height, the more harmonious would be the subjects personality.

Occasionally one may find a triradius on the thenar eminence (Mount of Venus). Other than to note that she had found it more readily on oriental and Jewish hands, she had little to say of it. Perhaps those she observed had some common genetic ancestry.

The is frequently a triradius at center base of the palm, in the area between the two eminences that some palmists call the Mount of Neptune. She speculated over its possible involvement with extra sensory abilities. Traveling further over the palm, towards the inside edge of the hypothenar eminence (the Mount of the Moon) she noted some early dermatoglyphic study that may have correlated this with pre natal conditions. A number of studies have sought to relate this as evidence of some congenital defect. She noted that for palmists it indicated an ability of the subject to draw into sharp focus memories of sensations, feelings, both texturally and emotionally. Finally, she considered the apex on the lower part of the Mount of Luna itself, the hypothenar eminence, and reported that Indian practitioners considered it a bad sign, one of a laborer for others who would not succeed but bring the harvest to those for whom he or she worked.

Palmar Patterns: Hutchinson also explored the meaning of special palmer patterns. (Figure 12) This was not an attempt to gain insight into the possible of any of the origins and endings of main lines used in the regular course of dermatoglyphic studies, but rater it was an attempt to make use of any unusual dermatoglyphic patterns that appeared on the palm.

Hutchinson believed that the loop of humor (a) was an infallible sign of subjects who could see the humorous side of life and had the sense of the ridiculous. But if it crosses over towards the thumb (b) it is more of an indication of vanity, and the vain do not care to be laughed at. She named (c) the loop of serious intent tends to denote people who have a serious purpose in life. While a serious hobby might satisfy those with only one such whorl, two seems to require work of some serious service or contribution. In (d) she followed Indian tradition of relating that loop to one who was born with Royal blood, and looked for personal magnetism or executive abilities.

The (e) type of loop may be found beginning anywhere from below the index finger to the middle of the palm, and can go across the palm or down, and lies near or below the proximal transverse crease (head line). It will tend to end on the hypothenar eminence (Luna). It evidences special qualities of good memory which she said defied exact definition. The (f) loop is related to physical courage. The (g) loop has been related to green thumbs and a discernment of any energies that may be emitted from various substances. Both the (e) and the (g) loop are believed to increase the posers of dowsers, with Hutchinson perhaps giving the edge to the (g) loop. She recalls how village idiots used to be considered to have the 'gift of the bees' or other natural traits that made them useful to society. She also noted that this sign was frequently found on people with down's syndrome. This raises some interesting conjectures.

palmarpatternsThe loop beginning at the center-base of the hand (j) may take any direction. Hutchinson speculated that it might reflect some powers of imagination or intuition. She had seen the (h) loop so seldom that that she was merely speculating that it reflected some humanistic imagination, kindness or humanitarian aspect of personality.

The loops (I), (k), and (l) she relates to music. (k) may be found on those with a strong emotional bond to music. The cross patterning found in the bee (i) appears to relate to a love of stringed instruments while the brass have their advocates with the (l) loop. The ability to play or compose is not assured.

Occasionally a whorl will be found on the hypothenar eminence (Luna) When not on the hands of schizophrenics she feels that it heightens the individuality of characteristics drawn from the subconscious. A composite found in the same area is an indication of ambivalence. Hutchinson also found that a tented arch in that area was a sign of instinctive enthusiasm. She felt that the arch so often found at the base of the hand and on the thenar eminence evidenced did not represent a field open to investigate because it is so frequently found and lack any radius or any clear focus on western hands. The open field, that area without pattern where the ridges seem to flow smoothly of the percussion were for her an indication of a harmony with nature.

atd angleDr. Scheimann, M.D., referred to both Cummins & Midlo and to Jaquin in his work in 1969.(75) He brought together both observations from the science of dermatoglyphics and cheirology. He discussed a number of fingerprint features as well as features of the dermal ridges on the palm: the loop, the arch, the tented types, the whorl and the composite, the triradius as designated by their scientific designations, a b c d and t (Figure 11) and the atd angle (Figure 13) and the ridge counts on in the loop and between the A and B triradii.

Dr. Scheimann observed that loops and whorls were the more common fingerprints and tented types were the more common palmer patterns. He noted that if one lacked any three of the five more common characteristics, one would be mor predisposed to some congenital defect. Those "normal features were: 1) no patterns on the thenar and hypothenar prominence (mounts of Venus- the base of the thumb and Luna on the hypothenar edge or percussion of the hand); 2)do not have monomorphic hands (monomorphic hands have the same fingerprint on all ten fingers); 3) the ATD angle is around 45%; 4) the average loop ridge count is from 12 to 14; and 5) the AB ridge count is around 34.

He related the following features to the possibility of neurotic predisposition: displaced axial triradius; whorls and loops on the mount of Luna; qn increase of composites on all fingers and the Mount of Venus; and disassociated or ill-formed ridges known as "Strings of Pearls" (Figure 24). He then indicated that he felt that fingerprint patterns indicate certain characteristics and those characteristics at times corresponded to those observed by Jaquin.

Loops: He found that those with six or more loops for fingerprints were adaptable, had both mental and emotional elasticity, easygoing, and perhaps a little too responsive to other's moods. Versatility fights concentration in this person.

Tented Arches: He observed that those with tented arches sounded like those born under the sign of Libra, strongly influenced by their environment and who "easily gets out of balance." He also added the traits of peach, harmony and beauty to idealistic.

Composites: This person is plagued by vacillation. His thoughts, like his print patterns, run in two directions.

Arch: Mistrusts himself. Questions his own actions and wisdom. Becomes more introspective with age through his anxiety to avoid error.

Whorl: He felt this was the most important pattern and was the keynote to individuality. Independence, determination and originality unaffected by convention or opposition.

He would look to the thumb as the overall personality indicator if no pattern makes up the majority of the prints and if the thumb pattern is not the same as the predominant pattern on the rest of the fingers, one suspects that the person has a combination of the characteristics shown.

Yusuke Miyamoto divided fingerprints into two types, streams and whirlpools.(76) In his short book for public consumption on the way to use his system, he did not give individual character or psychological meaning to each type. Rather he compared the location of each type on five fingers, thumb through little finger and from that came up with thirty two character types. Each type is infused with a variety of psychological characteristics forming a composite profile of character. He might be considered a modern eastern dactologist. We do not plan top use his approach in any initial investigations. He also follows the oriental approach of reading the right hand prints for women and the left hand prints for men following the theory that the right hand represents the yin, female or negative elements and the left hand represents the yang, male or positive elements. Some Chinese reverse this order after the age of about thirty.(77)

Beverly C. Jaegers published two books the year following the Penrose comment. One was devoted almost entirely to fingerprints and palmar dermatoglyphics and the other to the wider subject of hand analysis. On the palm she identified thirteen patterns. She omitted the Hutchinson Humanism pattern (Figure 12 h) and added two new patterns she had observed. One was an ulnar loop on the proximal phalange of the index finger that she called the Charisma - 'Presence' sign. The other new loop was shown as a radial loop on the proximal phalange of the little finger and she called that the Ultra-femininity or masculinity sign.(78)

In her book You and Your Hand she also identified several other palm patterns. She showed a Figure reminiscent of the composite illustrated by Hutchinson on the hypothenar eminence (Luna) and called it the Aquarian or double loop sign. She also identified a wavy formation seen on either the hypothenar or thenar eminence that she related to some astrological influence. She found the loop that Hutchinson called the Rajah (Figure 12 d) was extremely rare, may have something to do with some chromosomal abnormality may occasionally be found on persons with enhanced charisma. She mentioned the connection to royalty. She identified the loop Hutchinson called serious (Figure 12 c) as the common sense loop. She related it to the popular idea of good horse sense, good management of life in all areas and a need to take responsibility towards those around the subject. These people have a good grasp on their own needs and may be capable of giving good advice.

Another contrast with Hutchinson is Jaegers' description of Hutchinson's vanity loop (Figure 12 b). She describes it as the ego or relationship loop. She finds these subjects to be extremely self conscious, introspective or over self conscious. Like Hutchinson, she noted that these subjects do not like to be the objects of jokes. She added meaning to the Hutchinson brass music loop (figure 12 l). She mentioned the subjects response to music and rhythm but adds that this is also a sign of empathy to surroundings, where the subject's moods are greatly influenced by those around him or her. In discussing the loop of memory (figure 12 e) she found that if the loop ran horizontally it indicated a strong memory for facts and figures and information gained through reading. As it dips toward the wrist, the memory is mor colored by remembrance of feeling and emotions of the past.

Jaegers new loop or ultra-femininity or masculinity, which she also calls the Scorpio loop, relates to the id or libido, apparently enhancing it. It may also enhance appreciation of sights and sounds of beauty. The new Jaegers' loop of charisma represents a particular quality of leadership who attracts people to his or her goals and leadership by his or her mere presence. Most of her other palmar sign observations parallel those of Hutchinson.

Jaegers added new types of fingerprints for our consideration, the loop-arch (figure 14) the double loop or Aquarian (figure 15) as possibly distinguished from the composite (Figure 9) also referred to as the incomplete whorl, and the accidental (figure 14). Her kernel loop later (Figure 10, compound) became a Peacock's feather and her bulls eye became know as the whorl. She distinguished between the ulnar and radial loops.

She felt the arch evidenced an honest and reliable subject, conservative and taciturn with moral values that could approach the puritanical at times, yet on a person with sensual tendencies. If the hand is strong, the subject will be steady and capable, but found on a weak hand the indication will be of conflict. The persons with the tented arch she divided into two groups, those with a delta, triangle or kernel at the base of the arch and those without. These people enjoy interspersing mental with physical work and those without the kernel are need to stay busy. Those with the kernel are more comfortable with participating in communication and have an "eager, searching intellect. They can tend to be perfectionists. Their sincerity and honesty colors their expectations so they may misjudge others expecting them to have the same sincerity and honesty. Those without the kernel tend to have good technical skills and can be good with animals. The full value of the prints could archloopdepend upon the type of hands they are found on.

Arch with Loop: She described an arch with a loop in it. In tradition dermatoglyphics this might either be confused with a loop or an arch. It would appear somewhat like that shown in figure 14. She indicates that it may be indicative of a searching intellect, one who might excel in creative fields that require abstract thought, such as medicine or science, and who have good memories.

doubleloopDouble Loop: She designates the double loop as the Aquarian and finds it most frequently on the 4th (ring) finger which is generally known in palmistry as the sun or Apollo finger but which she and Dennis Fairchild(79) call the Venus finger. The attributes of the double loop are much like the of the composite loops described by Hutchinson and indeed Hutchinson actually pictures a double loop in her book as does Vera Compton and both refer to this feature also as the twinned or entwined loop. Dr. Scheimann appears to picture both, though it is not entirely clear from the illustrations given. Jaquin pictures the incomplete whorl, the type shown in figure 9 above, and calls it the composite. Jaegers gives the subject the ability to "double-think" and have trouble separating reality from fantasy. Depending on how the ability is channeled Jaegers can see the result as either an artist or a liar. Perhaps the consummate con artist?

Whorls: Jaegers adds the nonconformist to the individualist in her analysis of what the spiral whorl indicates (figure 8). The target or concentric circle whorl she describes as a sign that looks like an eye (figure 7). She assigned descriptions dependant on which finger it was found on. On the index finger it indicted good perception. When found on the middle finger, she credits the subject with a genius for organization and categorization who are not confused or disoriented. When found on the ring finger the subject is able to spot the flaw in objects or plans, a fine eye for discernment. As a general rule the target whorl is the sign of inner concentration of the individualistic person who can see all sides of a question and that makes the subject's decisions harder.

Loops: (figures 4 and 14) Jaegers divides loops into radial and ulnar as do those studying dermatoglyphics and she differentiates these from the radial and ulnar loops with a kernel. Good perception, good visual memory and unique patterns of analysis that allows perception of hidden patterns and agenda, all that may lead to different conclusions from the 'crowd' characterize those with radial kernel loops. Those with the ulnar kernel loops are better at plagiarism of assets and ideas of others who can see the talents or shortcomings of others better than their own. They suffer slow or dull thinkers badly. They suffer from too wide ranging interests. The subjects with plain ulnar loops have short attention spans. Think quickly and need changes. They have an adaptable personality and flexible outlook. She believes they may be able to perceive loop holes, can work towards personal goals or the goals of others, loose sight of personal aims when the goal is in sight and are open minded. The radial loop has some of these characteristics, with free flowing ideas and abilities to improvise. This subject seems more individualistic, especially with the loop found on the index finger. But they are much less adaptable and flexible than those found with the ulnar loops. They seldom retain all the information they have gathered.

Accidentals: The other print described by Jaegers is the accidental. This is sort of a catch all category for prints that do on file well in other categories. I have not found in the three books I have of Mrs. Jaegers''s work on palmistry any further description of what these accidentals may evidence in terms of character. accidentals

Triradii: Jaegers also considered the significance of triradii in her 1974 book You and Your Hand.(80) She located seven positions for the triradius, one under each finger that we described above as a, b, c, and d, one along the thenar side of the palm below the distal transverse crease (heart line) (in the area of the box on the hand in figure 12), one in the general area that we have formally described as td (Figure 11), and one at the center base of the palm that we have described as t. She considered the td location as the normal placement of the axial triradius. She indicated that the axial triradius at this location evidenced a "normal correspondence between the conscious and subconscious" and "normal prenatal existence The higher location, under the distal transverse crease, (Figure 12 box on hand area) would indicate to her prenatal or later life heart problems and an enhanced tactile, sensual or emotional memory. She illustrated some unfamiliarity with the scientific studies of dermatoglyphics when she discussed the normal placement of the axial triradius at or below where we show td (Figure 11). Cummins & Midlo(81) had reported t as the most frequent location of the axial triradii and cited statistics on the study of 1281 German males in their 1943 book on dermatoglyphics. But Jaegers, possibly unaware of such scientific literature on the subject, stated(82) "Although this placement does not seem to have come to the attention of the scientists, it has been my observation that this particular placement has been found exclusively on the hands of psychics." She felt this corroborated the findings of astrologers. Perhaps Palmists are fortunate she published after the Penrose letter of 1973. She voiced a desire to be better informed of the work in scientific studies of the hand.

The digital triradii that we show as a, b, c, and d in Figure 11, Jaegers calls Apex triradii, possibly following the leads of Benham and St. Germain. She mentioned a formation below the ring finger that looked more like a neckless than a triradius and indicated subjects with those formations would never achieve happiness in terms considered as popularly desirable, though he or she, through individual efforts, may find satisfaction and contentment. She described ridge counts from the triradii to the proximal finger flexure line as normal if between five and ten, recessed if thirteen or over under fingers 3 and 5 (Saturn and Mercury), and fifteen to seventeen below fingers 2 and 4 (Jupiter and Apollo). High setting would be within three to five ridge lines of that flexure crease. She considered the low setting as repressive and those with high settings had access to the fuller use of the character attributes related to that finger.

A low set apex under the index finger (No. 2) would indicate that leadership abilities would be understated, better expressed in support, or behind the scenes. High settings would provide more support for the active leader. Such a setting would spur ambition, aspirations, and self confidence. If the placement of the apex tends toward the thumb, the quality of fearlessness grows. The self sacrificial or martyr may be indicated if the mount is more radially located. Jaegers also felt the radial location might indicate persons who use others to achieve their own ends.

Jaegers recognized that the triradius under the middle finger would normally be higher than the one under the ring finger. The higher triradius under the middle finger evidences the desire for continuing education and intellectual expansion. Learning for those with normal or more centrally located triradii would preferably come through experience rather than formal education. The low apex indicated the conservationist to her, one interested in gardening or animal husbandry and even vegetarians. People with apices that lean towards the index finger are sensitive about their intellectual accomplishments and shortcomings. They also tend to be tight with finances. It is not a usual location. The more customary location is below the middle of the finger, indicating balanced judgment (justice, fair play and good judgment). With the apex leaning towards the ring finger we may find a more live and let live attitude, accepting human nature in all shades. sh notes that some authorities have held that it represents a spendthrift attitude, but she does not concur. She believes it evidences the humanitarian. If the main line flows from b to d and thus the ridge lines cut off any apex pattern below the third (ring) finger, this is a sign of one possibly gifted in electronics or computer or software design.

Highly placed apices under the ring finger labels one as enjoying the company of others and not caring to be alone. Jaegers finds this person requires constant background noise, such as the TV, or boom box. Rarely self conscious, they enjoy socializing. If both this setting and the one under the little finger are high, they tend to be performers, show offs. It the aspect is low, the person will tend to be more introspective, creating for themselves, such as a diarist. Need for personal space and solitude accompany this sign. The normal location for this apex is from eight to twelve ridge lines below the proximal finger crease. If the apex leans towards the middle finger, intellectual creativity is indicated. It is seldom seen leaning towards the little finger, but when it does, look for a "fascinating conversationalist." Should no apex be found below this finger, the subjects creativity may be blocked unless their are palmar lines or creases that cut through the ridge lines to reach the proximal finger crease.

Under the Little finger the apex is usually lower set than under the other fingers. If it is set closer to the radial side, it indicates one who finds vocal communication easier. Moving to the center or towards the ulnar side of the hand the apex indicates one who is more relaxed with the written word.

Elizabeth Brenner acknowledges the existence of dermatoglyphics but offers little insight into the complexion of personality in her 1980 discussion of dermatoglyphics.(83) She preferred to advise the readers of the then popular understanding of the scientific studies in the area. Dennis Fairchild in his book of the same year(84) goes into quite extensive observations on character traits and dermal patterns. He shows some strong affinity for the same school as Bevy Jaegers as they both reverse the common palmistry names for the pads under the ring finger and the thumb, calling the one under the ring finger Venus and the one under the thumb the Sun of Apollo.

Dennis Fairchild offered a few new observations in his 1980 publication. He found whorls on the thumb indicated deliberate and careful characters, aggressive in pursuing desires, with a need for recognition, admiration, and to be applauded. This may lead to excesses. On the index finger the whorl can indicate magnetic dynamism. These people set strict rules for self and are willing to accept responsibility for future planning. On the middle (Saturn) finger it denotes the good organizer needing a concrete philosophy of life. Subjects with whorls on the ring finger show an "uncanny" ability to ferret out injustice across their paths. They are effective teachers of morality and truth. Focus is important for these subjects to realize their endless and limitless desires for love, freedom and discoveries. When found on the little finger, the whorl indicates an understanding of people. But they tend to be detached. They are also wealth seekers. Arches on the middle and ring fingers indicate something of the same run for the money. He appears to be confused about the more common loop to be found on the thumb. He says the radial loop is the more common loop. Cummins and Midlo reported in 1943, based on 1905 data from Scotland Yard reporting on fingerprint types of 5,000 individuals that 55.89% had ulnar loops on their right thumb and 0.22% had radial loops. On the left thumb, 65.9% had ulnar loops and .20% had radial loops.(85) Our experience is quite similar. Fairchild did not discuss this further in his recent (1996) palmistry book.(86) Carol Hellings White approaches fingerprint patterns very simply in her 1980 publication, dividing them into four patterns, whorl, loop, arch and composite, without differentiations between ulnar and radial, or tinted and simple arches or other features.(87) She emphasized general characteristics evidenced by these prints. The arch indicates one who sees an orderly, purposeful world in a nonjudgmental, accepting fashion. The loop indicates an active, outgoing person with a love of "progress", who may be motivated by either feelings of responsibility or desire to be prominent and involved in the limelight. Depth and concentration come to mind when looking at the whorl, a person very selective and otherwise noncommittal. She sees the composite as the combination of the whorl and loop. In this she sees an open minded person, curious and with what she sees as the scientific approach, cautious?

David Brandon-Jones in his 1980 work followed a course of several other palmists listed here of trying to popularize some "scientific" findings with regard to health and dermatoglyphics. He also included a few observations on character traits associated with several fingerprints, the loop, composite loop, whorl, arch, tented arch and peacock's eye.(88) Following observations we have already encountered he noted that too many loops on the hands, without other strong signs, would be evidence of vacillation, instability and inconsistency. He felt that those with radial loops tried to impress themselves on the world and risked charges of braggadocio.

Indecision is the key in the composite. Brandon-Jones agreed with many other palmists here on the meanings of whorls. Dogmatic stubbornness may be indicted if found on the thumb who will not back down unless the other thumb contains an ulnar loop. People with whorls on their little fingers, it may indicate such independence of thinking that the subject has long since despaired over being understood or sympathized with. The arch is a sign of dependability, once the subject has given his word. He sees the tented arch as a sign of such emotional sensitivity as to be close to instability. These people need quiet, peaceful surroundings. He also observes such people may have very sensitive, acute hearing. The peacock's eye indicates penetrating perception on any fingers but the ring finger where it seems to indicate the ability to avoid death through accident or intentional trauma.

In 1983 Enid Hoffman addressed her attention to a group loops we have seem previously in Jaegers' work.(89) She leaves out the ultra-feminine-masculine loop on the little finger and moves the Inspiration loop more into the central area of the ulnar side of the palm. She adds a loop from the palm edge just at the base of the thumb that she says evidences a natural sense of rhythm in people who love melody and harmony and have an aptitude for dance. This may be a little closer to the ideas of Hutchinson, though it is at the more distal location on the thenar eminence, above Ms. Hutchinson's mark for brass music.

triadarchShe treats several fingerprints, loops, double loops, concentric whorls, spiral whorls that twist clockwise and counterclockwise, and two types of tented arches, one that looks very much like Fitzherbert's high arch, below, and one with a triad. She uses the word triad to indicate triradii, and also to an enclosure at the base of a simple arch. She also mentions composites but it is not clear whether she is talking about fingerprints. She adds the team player to loops found on both little fingers or both middle fingers, and achievement through cooperation if found on the index fingers. She notes loops on the index finger also indicate flexibility and one friendly to suggestions for change.

Hoffman stresses the uniqueness represented by whorls as well as the individuality and strong belief system. Whorls on little fingers signify idealism and expectations in close relationships. On the ring finger, besides supporting creative talent, they indicate one not easily influenced when it comes to choices. Whorls on the middle finger evidence heightened concern for strong family, home and career. Whorls on the index finger indicate the decision maker, with a strong personality and sense of self identity and latent powers to take charge. On the thumb the whorls are a strong sign of potential success of one who likes to control.

Hoffman pictures a high arch(90) (as Fitzherbert would describe it below) as a tented arch (Figure 17). She compares those with this sign to mountain climbers who strive to achieve. They often get caught up in social reform, movements, and political causes for the common good. She distinguishes between a high arch that has an enclosure at the base (Figure 18) and one that does not have any inclosure (Figure 17) and calls the enclosure a triad. Those without the triad plug along trying to get others into his or her cause. She confirms the arches indicate stubbornness and that these people do not like to be bossed. She also confirms their practical, reliable and industrious natures. If they have the triad arches on both thumbs, she finds this adds more concentrated power and increases ambition. Strong ambition is indicated when both middle fingers have this sign. These high arches may indicate an interest in the avant garde side of art when found on the ring fingers. On the little finger, goals of marital security and status will loom large.

Enid Hoffman finds that double loops are signs of good judgment in persons who avoid hasty decisions or impulsive behavior. On the thumbs this good judgment will involve goal setting. When found on the index fingers it will signify a good judge of other people. She counsels careers in decision making positions for those with double loops on both middle fingers.

Darlene Hansen went to some effort to annotate her Secrets of the Palm in 1984 and actually referred to several works on dermatoglyphics including the well know book of Cummins and Midlo.(91) She discussed several types of prints, the whorl, loop and arch including the ulnar loop, the "triadus" and radial loop. She distinguishes the character traits between the ulnar loop (mild mannered happy people) with radial loops indicating more individuality, like whorls. She notes that in the orient the whorls are mor associated with the yang elements while the loop is more representative of the yin elements. The whorl on the thumb will indicate one who will get what he wants even if he has to do it in an unusual way. Uniqueness accompanies the whorl characteristics.

The Japanese palmist Asano relied on the three basic fingerprints, loop, arch and whorl in his 1985 English language publication Hands.(92) People with whorls on their first two fingers (Thumb and index) hate to loose and refuse to submit to the will of others. They are positive in attitude and active in life, undaunted by defeats. If the whorls appear on both fingers of both hands, the subjects are adventurous extroverts. If the whorl is only on the index finger, these socially adroit people are constantly on the move seeking to put their own ideas into practice. They may tend to be insecure and irritable at times. While they may occasionally appear to conform to the will of others, the are actually quite selfish and will persevere.

Asano finds that loops on both the thumb and index fingers will indicate a cautious subject putting prudence before valor. They may let the opportunities of life slip by and may allow themselves to be dominated. Arches found on any of the four fingers will indicate both the bold and the timid, the picture of the bully who will generally improve his lot.

Asano believes that the ring and little finger prints relate to posers of original thought, opposite sex interests and artistic talents and are part of the keys to understanding the subjects aesthetic tastes and creative abilities, and love expectations. Whorls on both fingers indicate passionate subjects towards the opposite sex who have great creative and aesthetic abilities, far above the ordinary with extraordinary intuition and grasp of what others are thinking.

When only one finger is graced with the whorl, the subject still has special artistic or technical skills and ability to produce unusual, original ideas impossible for those of the middling sort to conceive. These may frequently follow long and unpleasant situations or human relationships. They may appear very cool but are quite tender. Their misfortunes and disappointments in love stimulate rather than depress them.

Asano finds that those with whorls on all fingers have outstanding artistic talent together with very easily bruised egos. The frequently find their love rebuffed while they may despise those who admire or love them. Those with loops on all fingers accommodate and survive in troublesome situations. While they appear to be weak, they will fiercely protest if backed into a corner.

Andrew Fitzherbert in his 1986 work Hand Psychology divided the fingerprints into arches, whorls and loops and divided those groups into spiral and concentric whorls, high and low arches, and left and right loops.(93) He continues with the observation that the whorl indicates the individualist: intense, possibly isolated, secretive and thoughtful. The arch signifies the practical doer, who may be suspicious and ask to be show before he or she believes. These people can be steady, useful and realistic, but slow to respond and accept change. The loop fits the adaptable, easy going, flexible, middle of the road personality with wide abilities, who fits in. He follows the line that the concentric whorl may indicate the whorl traits more strongly. He finds those with high arches are usually more skillful and idealistic. He makes no difference between left and right loops and does not distinguish in this work between ulnar and radial loops (which, or course, could be left or right depending on the hand). He indicates that strong, clear prints intensify the character significance of each pattern and bring out the loftier aspects of those traits. He tends to read the characteristics by which print is the dominant print on the hands. He mentions briefly the tented arch and the composite. He clearly distinguishes between a tented arch and a high arch by requiring a "tent pole" for the tented arch (Figure 6), a distinction not observed by Hoffman. Those with composites see two sides to a question and have a difficult time making up their minds. Hence indecision? The tented arch is a sigh of enthusiasm. These subjects have the qualities of the ordinary arch, but become deeply involved with what they do. Hence enthusiasm?

Fitzherbert ascribes meanings to each print type depending on the finger where it is found. On the index finger, the whorl evidences individuality, ability to form one's own ideas. On the middle finger, the individualism is expressed in working life, often leading to selection of unusual careers. A whorl on the ring finger indicates artistic ability, while the same print on the little finger is usually so seldom found he could make little interpretation of it except in one case. When whorls are found on both the little and ring fingers, it indicates an unusually active subconscious leading to vivid precognition, hunches and mental impressions. On the thumb he say the whorl as indicating the individualistic way of getting things done.

Placing the arch on the thumb indicates a practical, direct approach to tasks. On the index finger, it may indicate a practical approach to personal hobbies and interests, beliefs, that does not carry through to other areas of life. Arches on the middle finger evidence the practical employee and the otherwise intellectually oriented person with this mark may prefer simple, physical tasks. Arches on the ring finger indicate the artistic interest may be represented through craftsmanship. No mention of the arch is made on the little finger. The tented arch adds the element of enthusiasm.

Recognizing that the loop on the little finger is by far the most common print on that finger., he says no more. Not does he discuss the loop on the other fingers. He discusses the composite, noting changeability in beliefs and attitudes if found on the index finger; uncertain and changeable attitudes towards career when found on the middle finger; and variable artistic tastes on the ring finger. He also discusses the loop in connection with the loops of seriousness and humor.

Fitzherbert also discusses palmar skin patterns.(94) In addition to some observations we have seen in Hutchinson's work above, he indicates that an ulnar directed triradius under the ring finger is a sign of caution. He finds a triradius under the ring finger that has a loop as one arm indicates an affinity with animals, a trait earlier recognized by Hutchinson.(95) He generally follows Hutchinson in relating various signs and loops on the palm to character traits and personal qualities. The S sign generally seen on the hypothenar eminence indicates switching of culturally related sexual roles, while the whorl in the same location shows a specially strong imagination and affinity for visualization. A whorl on the IV interdigital area, where the loop of humor is more likely found, will indicate sarcasm.

Sasha Fenton and Malcolm Wright,(96) addressed their attention to six types of prints and some problem patterns or defects in them in their 1986 work. The prints addressed were the arch, tented arch, composite, whorl, loop, and peacock's eye (Figure 10). Arches signify tendencies toward introversion, secrecy, withdrawal, self defensive behavior from rather shy, ordinary and practical people usually not bestowed with an easy life. If they become enthusiasts they may 'talk your ear off.' The double loop analysis follows previous observers except for the speculation that if found on the little finger it might be a sign of bisexuality.

The person with many whorls reminds these authors of the anti-hero, cool and calculating with strong emotional control who need either a compliant partner who stays in the background or has his or her own separate career. The whorl on the index finger indicates one who either does not or can not understand other peoples way of life and does not let other competing matters interfere with his or her career. For Fenton and Wright the whorl on the middle finger will increase the serious concern of the subject for matters of self importance. On the ring finger, the whorl indicates tastes set early in life are hard to change and the subject has the right to dictate his or her partners emotions and activity. On the little finger it represents conflicts between shyness in one who could be a teacher or researcher driven by the need to expand his mental horizons.

Fenton and Wright bring out the that the loops indicate not only a quick and elastic mind, but one that quickly becomes board in a subject who just may leave an escape hatch to avoid long commitments. The tented arch shows these writers a subject who may be idealistic but lacks adaptability. This super enthusiastic subject may be easily deranged by changes in circumstance and very sensitive to criticism. The tented arch indicates talent by combining the intensity of the whorl with the flexibility of the loop. An inclosure in the arch (Figure 18 Triad style arch) may look to the authors like a little whorl which may signify the subject is a 'know it all.'

Terrence Dukes, who is now known as Shifu Nagaboshi Tomino in recognition of his priestly status, described his work including dermatoglyphics as hand analysis focusing on the fundamental teachings of the Wu-Hsing method as practiced within the Chen Yen Esoteric Buddhist tradition.(97) He opines that most now agree that the ancient Buddhist texts that describe the skin color, texture, shape, and gesture as well as wheel patterns are descriptions of dermatogliphia although such texts do not describe them as such. This would have been news to Cummins and Midlo when they published their seminal work in 1943. But Dukes published in 1987.

elongatedwhorlDukes discusses a number of dermal patterns, the simple and tented arches, the loop, the falling loop, the whorl, elongated whorl and imploding whorl, the triradius, the flame and the loop as more likely seen on the palm. Each of these patterns symbolize one or more basic elements from which human characteristics may be drawn. The arch symbolizes the Earth element, the loop the water element, the tented arch and the triradius the fire element and the whorl the air element. Other patterns symbolize a combination of elements: the falling loop both water and fire (Figure 19 based on drawing); the elongated whorl both water and air (Figure 20); the imploding whorl both fire and air (Figure 22); and the flame both fire and water (Figure 23).

In the simple pattern of the arch (Figure 5) we find the tribe or group oriented person, often inarticulate and cautious but with a since of the rhythms of life. The characteristics of this sign are related to protection and security and would be accompanied by inhibition.

Sensitivity, artistic interests, responsiveness all with a lack of concentration are shown by the loop (Figure 4). He notes they may lean right or left. The Whorl (Figures 7 and 8) indicates all those elements we have seen above, independence, freedom seeking, often intense, self motivated, secretive, original and emotionally inhibited personality. Elongating the whorl (Figure 20) adds emotional overtones to these qualities so that original ideas may be prompted by emotional experiences.

implodingwhorlThe tented arch (Figure 6) is a sign of the fire element, hyperactive and powerful, indicating expressive and impulsive subjects. Falling loops represent dualism in approach to experiences. Though highly perceptive, without stabilization in other features of the hand, this is an erratic sign.

The imploding whorl is drawn as if two whorls stand side by side and we have attempted to represent the actual drawings with prints in Figures 21 and 22. However this feature may also be represented by the composite, shown in Figure 9 or perhaps even the double loop shown in Figure 15, or one or more of the accidentals (Figure 16). However the double loop may rather be more representative of the falling loop described above. In any case he describes it as a sign of implodingwhorl"incomplete energy transformation." Because of this it relates to the "mundane world" which means it indicates materialism and inability to adapt. He describes it as folded over and pushed together. He says composites closely resemble it. His imploding whorl appears to be disintegrating.

flameThe descriptions of the triadus, the flame and the loop that lies horizontal across the palmar surface leads us into the other dermatoglyphic patterns of the palm itself. The flame looks like an inverted peacock's eye. The horizontal loop looks like a loop laid over onto its side. The triadus looks like a triradius. One wonders if he was reading Darlene Hansen (above) when he decided to call the triradius the triadus. He describes it as the "center of energy within a specific pattern." He also says "It occurs upon every digital and palmar mount, marking its effective source." As such a mark may not occur on a finger graced with a simple arch print, we are not absolutely sure this is what he means, but then the pattern he shows that looks like a triradius also does not appear on such fingers.

In Dukes' method of palmistry, each direction on the hand takes on added meanings relating to character. Like other palmists, he finds that the significance of the print is influenced by the direction it lies in relation to other parts of the hand. He also relates gradations of character to the texture of the skin as exhibited by the sizes of the ridges and how they are spaced. They climb the ladder of character as they grow finer and closer. One must take into consideration the finger elements where the sign is found, energy or ether for the thumb, water for the index finger, earth for the middle finger, fire for the ring finger and air for the little finger. He describes finding a simple arch on the ring (fire) finger as an indication of the love of dance, crafts or simple arts. Signs on the energy finger, the thumb, will reflect how one manifests ones desires in the external world.

Dukes refers to three main types of patterns found on the palm, the loop, whorl and flame. And how it is unlikely they will coexist on the same palm. He also notes that triradii are found on the palm and the center of the triradius forms the center of the "mount," a geographic reference to a location in the palm that has character significance. The loops he pictures in three types depending on how high the loop is, how wide it is and how fine and closely packed the ridges are. Low, wide loops are earth types, while fine and closely packed ridges represent the air element. The drawing of the fire element in loops seems to fall in between, but the language description indicates it is slightly wider and shorter than the earth loop. He finds that all loops on the palm indicate a subject who is essentially responsive. Whorls and flames indicated more individualistic attitudes. Like prints, the palmar patterns take on the characteristics toward which they incline and those related to the areas wherein they lie. Occasionally one will find such marks on the phalanges and these also have characteristics attributed to them.

The epicenter of each fingerprint also has the modifying characteristics of location in relationship to character. Where the epicenter lies closer to the thumb it reflects a predisposition towards external expression, while the opposite is true if it lays closer to the little finger. The higher the epicenter, the more spiritual, idealistic are the subject's characteristics and vis versa. The tip is also divided in quarters to represent the four elements. In relationship to the thumb the air quadrant is the upper most distant. Water the lower most distant, Fire the upper quadrant nearest the thumb and earth the lower quadrant nearest the thumb. Air relates to spiritual impression, (conceptualization), fire to spiritual expression, water to physical impression (subjectivity) and earth to physical expression.

So the Wu Hsing method of palmistry would combine the meaning of each finger with the type of print, and its level and direction as well as its epicenter to form an accurate plan of the subject's personal interests and influences. The epicenter seems to bear a close physical similarity to the core as described in criminal forensic science of fingerprint identification and the kernel described above by Jaegers.

Nathaniel Altman combined with two other prominent hand analysts in 1989 to produce two books. With Dr. Scheimann he produced Medical Palmistry(98) an update of Dr. Scheimann's earlier work. With Andrew Fitzherbert he produced Career, Success and Self Fulfilment.(99) In the former book they dealt with the medical aspects of fingerprints. In the latter they made a short reference to the personality traits represented by the whorls, arches, tented arches, loops and composites.(100) They emphasize that these represent the permanent elements of character that may perhaps be modified, but not discarded. They repeat the general observations of Fitzherbert above.

Paul Gabriel Tesla has produced two books that clearly appear to be attempts to meld ideas of palmistry with dermatoglyphics.(101) Tesla describes the palm from the viewpoint of one studying dermatoglyphics. However, while he shows some dermatoglyphic main line courses in his Crime & Mental Disease in The Hand, he does not discuss the general relevance, if any there be, in their origin and insertions on the palm with respect to character analysis. The spaces between the fingers are know as interdigital spaces and are correctly numbered from the first between the thumb and index finger to the fourth between the ring and little finger. He recognizes 36 types of fingerprints and 20 types of dermal patterns. These include the tri-radius, unpatterned or neutral field, whorl, coil (a type of spiral from a single ridge), loops (including both ulnar and radial loops and some other variations), whorl loop, pocket loop (like a peacock's eye or flame), entwined loops, opposing loops, head on loops, arch and tented arch, cross patch and cross cuts. In the Complete Science of Hand Reading, he describes his findings on the significance of all of these patterns where found on the palm and fingers. His overall observations are to numerous to capsulize in this short paper, but would be used for inquiry while conducting our future studies. It is enough to say that his 1991 works, by their sheer size, are unique in the reports of hand analysts on personality as reflected in the dermatoglyphics of the palm.

Samudrik Tilak M. Katakkar also wrote an Encyclopedia of Palm and Palm Reading after many years of practice and in his 1992 work discussed the loops, arches, tented arches whorls and composites from both health and character aspects.(102) His work was not know to this author while writing my own Encyclopedia. However, Dr. Katakkar may have been even less familiar with the works cited here because he makes the remarkable statement that the patterns of fingertip dermal ridges had never received any attention before his work. Perhaps he is merely speaking for Indian palmists, because it is obvious that by 1992 many palmists had considered the subject.

Dr. Katakkar maintains that the fingerprints show the hereditary character foundation of each person. This is apparently only partially correct as environmental influences also play their rolls. He notes that loops may run right to left or left to right so he does not distinguish between ulnar and radial loops. We have seen this failure in other palmists above. We believe that the distinction of whether a loop is radial or ulnar, besides being anatomically correct, is the only way to make sense of those prints because right and left can depend on whether the hands are observed from the subject's view or by an independent observer in front of the subject and whether the hands are held fingers up or down.

Dr. Katakkar finds the loop indicates a person with a high degree of emotional elasticity. Such a person can be expected to be very active and ready responses to his environment. However his versatility will make it difficult for him to stick to any one thing and he lacks concentration. This subject will be emotionally impulsive.

Katakkar's second type of print is the tented arch which he believes indicates more nervous activity that the loop. He finds subjects with this print high strung, nervous and too easily responsive to emotional stimulation. He finds them naturally affected by musical tunes (melody?) and so idealistic as to expect too much from life. By contrast the simple arch represents a secretive type of individual who represses his emotions and sentiments. He will have the appearance of a strong willed person, but in fact is uncertain, bewildered and hesitant. This inhibits him so he may exhibit obstinate characteristics and these mechanisms make him appear to be awkward.

The whorl, also called the chakra, fairs much better in Dr. Katakkar's estimation. This is a sign of one with definite independence in thought and action. Such persons are original in ideas and independent, resenting dominance of others. While they tend to be better listeners than talkers, they are quite eloquent and clear in their expressions. These self confident subjects follow their own whims and are quite secretive. If found low on the thumb print, it is a sign of good luck unless found on a woman with an ample, round middle phalange of the thumb. In that case it is a sign of infidelity and immorality.

Dr. Katakkar's last print is the composite. He finds such prints indicate the practical type. He finds that such people can have good judgment but lack common sense. He finds such people too materialistic and lack consideration for the emotional aspects of life. He finds these subjects lack an understanding or appreciation for the ideal visions or plans of life. He also finds such persons lack mental elasticity and are everywhere narrowly limited.

In 1993 Rita Robinson published her dermatoglyphic observations in her Health in Your Hands.(103) She recognized a number of shapes: a simple arch, a sharp parch, a left loop that leans towards the little finger (radial loop?), a right loop that leans towards the thumb (ulnar loop?), double loops that could pass for a composite with both loops entering from the same direction, an oval whorl that looks like an elongated whorl, a spiral whorl and a round whorl that looks like a target whorl. She also describes the triradius and shows the core of a fingerprint. She mentions briefly the subject of ridge count between triradii which we will cover in more depth below. She follows the tradition of citing recent studies for various medical and biological traits and dermal patterns. In commenting on characteristics she adds to the tented arch that it can be a sign of difficulty in expression and tendency to internalize, and emotional insecurity. She cites some commonly held beliefs of other palmists for other character traits.

Richard Webster in his 1994 work, Revealing Hands, discussed the whorl, arch loop and tri-radii (Hyphenated like Dukes) and a group of palmer loops that could be practically laid on top of those mentioned by Hutchinson. From Hutchinson to Webster we can trace some of the development of ideas relating character to loops in the palms in the minds of many "palmists" (Figure 23). Webster's new loop is the one below the distal transverse crease in the palmar area palmists call upper mars, on the more distal portion of the hypothenar eminence. It bears some of the same personality traits as Jaegers' triradius in the same location. This indicates a good retention and ability to recall where Jaegers indicated that a triradius (apex) was a sign of enhanced tactile, sensual or emotional memory. His observations of other characteristics of loops on the palm have been described by the prior palmists covered above, as are his explanations of the meanings attributed to the fingerprints.

Moshe Zwang is another modern palmists, as well as acupuncturist and naturopath, who annotates his work and traces his fingerprints back to the work of Jan Purkinje's patterns and Noel Jaquin's work. Unfortunately, his 1995 work does not describe his own observations of what particular dermal patterns may signify.(104) Moshe has been studying microscopic changes in the dermatoglyphics resulting from behavioral changes and we look forward to the publication of his work. Xiao-Fan Zong and Gary Liscum concentrate on the oriental medical side of dermatoglyphics and add nothing to our character analysis report.(105)

Ray Douglass addressed fingerprints in his 1995(106) work and concluded that the whorl represented independent, self-contained and somewhat dogmatic characteristics. The loop represented the versatile, mercurial mind and quick emotions. The high arch also indicated quick, responsive minds as well as being impulsive and over sensitive. The low arch represented the skeptical and guarded characteristics and the composite the dual personality.

Sasha Fenton and Malcolm Wright have turned out a new book in 1996(107) and simplified the characteristics related to the fingerprints. The loop represents the team player, adaptable and reliable. The arch represents the shy and repressed. The Peacock's eye is very rare and signals creativity. The whorl signs the ambitious, selfish and independent. The double loop indicates the two sided person who tries to please everyone.

Lori Read's 1996 The Art of Hand Reading(108) is graced with some of the best art work of any of the palmistry books illustrating fingerprints and palmar ridge patterns. We have covered the fingerprint characteristics she finds above under prior palmists. She considered both ulnar and radial loops, concentric and spiral whorls, tented and simple arches, composite's and peacock's eyes. She notes that it is rare to see the peacock eye on any fingers other than the ring and little fingers and that it is a sign of luck or preservation.(109) On the palm Ms. Reid identifies the common location of the a, b, c, d, and t triradii, the rajah, humor, nature, music, courage loops and she names the serious loop the loop of vocation, saying it indicates dedication to work or career. She identifies the bee as the whorl of music indicating strong musical talent. She adds a loop of water, which is a loop proceeding from about the middle of the palm below the distal transverse crease with its loop at the more proximal end towards the hypothenar eminence. This shows an affinity to water. Reid also identifies a whorl found on the hypothenar eminence and says it signifies a concentration of imaginative talents. See the chart below for a comparison of major palmar dermatoglyphic designs found on some palms.

loopnamesSome Campbell Studies and Observations

My own studies have provided me with these tentative conclusions regarding certain fingerprints and certain other features of the hands

1. Persons with whorl prints (figures 7 and 8) as their thumb (finger No. 1) will tend to fight rather than fly whereas those with loops (figure 4) will tend to try to avoid the fight. People with composites (incomplete whorls or double loops) (Figures 9, 15 and 22) will tend to suffer from self doubt when it comes to completing their own plans and often fail to complete through hesitation or reverse their own decisions. In addition to this, those with loops together with a transverse creased between the proximal transverse crease and the wrist that runs from the ulnar edge of the hand to the thenar crease on the right hand, and possibly on the left hand at the same level in the center of the hand touching the thenar crease, will tend to become physically ill at their stomach when pressed into confrontation or arguments. The location of the print on the right or left hand will aid in determining in what activities in life the expected behavior will more likely manifest. This will also be influenced by the more currently predominant portion of the brain used to control personal relationships and this in itself can often be determined from the hands through a subsequent, pressure sensitive test.

2. Persons with whorl prints on their index fingers (finger No. 2) tend to be goal oriented whilst those with loops, especially ulnar loops, are more process oriented (drawn toward addressing immediate concerns of life). Radial loops will indicate more "mothering" qualities, good team players and support people. In the ulnar loop the lines that loop begin and end on the little finger side of the hand. The radial loop lines begin and end on the thumb side of the hand. If that loop has a cornel in it (sometimes referred to as a peacock's eye) the tendency will be the desire to be the mothering leader, needing a crew to work for her or him, such as a ship's captain. These people take the lead with an audience.

3. Persons with whorl prints on their middle fingers (finger No. 3) tend to be judgmental in that they look at appropriate behavior as "their way or the highway." They may tend to write their own rules. Those with loops tend to be more "live and let live".

4. Persons with whorl prints on their ring fingers (finger No. 4) tend to be highly concentrated when at work, and do not take interruption easily. Those with loops on the same finger tend to handle interruption far more easily and can handle tasks with many interruptions but they may be less focused on any single task at hand. (Excellent knowledge to have concerning receptionists and any supervisors in positions that require constant interruptions.)

5. Persons with whorl prints on their little fingers (finger No. 5) tend to interrupt conversations to bring out matters they believe are important even if those matters have nothing to do with the current topics under consideration. Those with loop fingerprints on the same fingers will tend to go with the flow of the conversation and make efforts to fit in even in uncomfortable situations. (Excellent knowledge to have of potential comptrollers and quality control engineers.)

adermatoglyphia6. Persons with brachytactyly affecting the medial phalange of the 5th finger (a noticeable short middle phalange on the little finger) have a very difficult time making "small talk", i.e. making talk just to be sociable. (Good quality to look for when its all business, but might fail in situations where "sociability" is a strong requirement.)

7. Persons with interrupted fingerprints (forming no patterns, Figure 24) on their 3rd (middle) finger are likely to have balance problems when they close their eyes and may have problems with personal location orientation. Gloria brought this home to me. She was accompanied by her Chiropractor when I examined her for the second time. She had this type of print. She could never predict from day to day where she would be (very undependable) and would actually loose her balance when she closed her eyes. This may suggest some very interesting neurological possibilities that should still be studied.

8. Persons with plump proximal phalanges on the palm side of their 4th (ring) finger tend to be good hosts or hostesses, liking to entertain while those whose phalange is flat there would rather go out to dinner than entertain.

9. Persons with very few lines on their hands tend to be more anxiety prone, and less able to express their emotions. While appearing very strong, they could be more prone to sudden brake downs, apoplexy and serious reactions to heavy and prolonged stressful situations.

10. The hand on which the fingerprint will be found will dictate the area of life the behavioral reaction is more likely to be displayed, with the left hand markings relating more to the personal, sensitive, home, and sentimental, nurturing family areas of life (except perhaps in some left handed and mixed handed people) while the right will probably relate more to the activities of the subject connected to his or her survival and security, including nest building.
This author(110) has had some success in using the suggestions of both Hutchinson and Jaegers on palmar patterns. On fingerprints, we have tried to keep it simple. The thumb whorl represents the person who hates to loose and thus would more likely fight than fly. The ulnar loop indicates the opposite approach of a person who would rather go around the obstacles in life. The intertwined double loop or composite indicates one who has a hard time separating wishful thinking from that which he or she may know but have no firm grounds to support that knowledge. These people may vacillate if required to act on hunches. They may find some success using the dowser's techniques to remove their doubt. The arch indicates the hard worker who will undermine the opposition with the same effort as the historical military engineer would undermine fortification walls. The whorl on the index finger will indicate the goal oriented person while the ulnar loop indicates the process oriented person, that is one who would rather work in a job that is concerned with immediate needs. This fits with the versatility and adaptability nature seen in that loop as well as its tendency toward boredom, or lack of concentration. The radial loop adds a different quality, one with more team spirit, of one who is a nurturer or motherer, and turns his or her attention to protecting those persons close and things dear to him or her. Key words describing persons with whorls on the index finger is that they are goal oriented planners, with simple arches, they are implementers, with ulnar loops are processors of the immediate needs and with radial loops they are motherers.

Occasionally one runs into a double loop that parallels the center line of the finger going longitudinally straight back and forth towards the end of the finger. We have found this a good sign of the bargain hunter and might indicate a good buyer when found on either the index finger and perhaps also if found on the middle or ring fingers. The whorl found on the middle finger indicates a person who might say: "Its my way or the highway." At one time we thought it would mean this person was judgmental according to social norms, but we have come to accept through observation that the whorl judgment may be a very personal one if that suits the subject. The loop on the middle finger indicates a more live and let live attitude. The arch on the same finger indicates one who will "chew over matters" to see what "tastes right" before making a decision.

A whorl on the ring finger indicates strong concentration in activities. Don't interrupt this person when on the phone. They become quite upset, flustered and possibly angry, when their concentration is broken. They need to be allowed to complete their tasks before starting the next one. By contrast, the loop on the same finger indicates one who can take interruption with equanimity, and would be a far better selection for a busy receptionists' position. A whorl on the little finger represents one who will speak up even if what she has to say has nothing to do with the conversation, so long as it appears to that subject to be of importance. These are the natural comptrollers, quality control engineers and whistle blowers of society. The loop is more likely to represent one who would go along with the flow of the conversation and blend in.

We find in the peacock's eye a sign of the performer. In each area it is found, the person will more likely concentrate his or her talents if there is a prospective audience. Otherwise, they will have the roving interests represented by the loops.

Earlier scientific studies related dermatological marking developments to the first four months of gestation, according to Dr. Eugene Scheimann, M.D.(111). or in the second trimester according to Dr. Theodore J. Berry, M.D., F.A.C.P.(112) Schaumann and Alter(113) describe the process more accurately and in detail as taking place early in fetal development and being genetically determined while being modified by environmental forces as exemplified by exposure to Rubella(114) and Thalidomide(115).

According to Schaumann and Alter, the process of dermal ridge formation begins with the formation of fetal volar pads. These are mound-shaped formations of mesenchymal tissue elevated over the end of the most distal metacarpal bone on each finger, in the interdigital areas just below the fingers, and on the hypothenar and thenar areas of the palms and soles. Secondary pads are found in other areas such as in the center of the palm and on the proximal phalanges. The fingertip formations of volar pads are first visible in the sixth to seventh week of development. William J. Babler indicates the epidermal ridges first appear in the form of localized cell proliferations around the 10th to 11th week of gestation. These proliferations form shallow corrugations that project into the superficial layer of the dermis. The number of ridges continue to increase, being formed either between or adjacent to existing ridges. It is during this period of primary ridge formation that the characteristic patterns are formed.(116) At about 14 weeks the primary ridge formation ceases and secondary ridges begin to form as sweat gland anlagen begin to develop along the apices of the primary ridges at uniform intervals. At this time the epidermal ridges first begin to appear on the volar surfaces. The dermal papillae are reported to develop in the valleys between the ridges on the deep surface of the epidermis around the 24th week. Until then the morphology of primary and secondary ridges appears as a smooth ridge of tissue and thereafter peg like structures, the dermal papillae, characteristic of the definitive dermal ridges are progressively formed.(117)

Babler reports the there is a relationship between the volar pad shape and the epidermal ridge configuration, specifically narrow volar pads related to whorl patterns. There was also a suggestion of association between the shape of the distal phalanx and the pattern type and significant correlations between the bony skeleton of the hand and the epidermal ridge dimensions. If is also suggested that the underlying bony skeleton correlates with the ridge configuration. Also, time of ossification may be a key factor in ridge patterning.(118)

It had been believed that the critical period of development of ridge formation began in the fetus of approximately 70-mm crown-rump length, or about 12 weeks of age.(119) However, we believe this has to be set at a considerably earlier time. The volar pads become visible around the 6th to 7th week of gestation.(120) In addition, clinical evidence supports the finding of arch patterns with shortened distal phalanges or short fingers because of the shortening of their bony parts (brachytactyly).(121) Brachymesophalangia-5 (short-middle phalange) has been detected as early as 41 mm Crown Rump Length growth of the fetus (prior to the 10th week) and prior to the formation of the epidermal ridges.(122) More recently Babler indicated that ossification of the distal phalanges appears to play a key role in epidermal ridge configuration and that any association of pattern type with the length of phalanges may be related to the ossification process of the distal phalanges rather than their size.(123)

frictionskinAs early as 1929 K. Bonnevie had speculated that fingerprint patterns were dependent upon the underlying arrangement of peripheral nerves.(124) W. Hirsch and J. U. Schweichel summarized opinion up to 1973 and pointed out the arrangement of blood vessels and nerve pairs under the smooth epidermis that exists shortly before glandular folds. They speculated that the folds were induced by the blood vessel-nerve pairs.(125) They describe a different and longer development of the dermal ridges some of which may be post natally concluded.(126) They conclude that pattern of papillary ridges is set after the development of the glandular folds, and thus after four months, although the growth pattern of the glandular folds are one of the three forces postulated to control the final highly arranged surface pattern. the glandular folds become perceptible in the forth month. So we have a pattern of development of ridges from possibly as early as the 10th or 11th week of gestation and not being set until after the forth month of gestation and not visible on the surface of the skin until after the sixth month of gestation with some possible minor post natal changes in the form of furrow folds.

Hirsch and Schweichel, supra., emphasize that the neuro epithelium plays an important part in the development of the dermatoglyphic patterns. Numerous aberrations of these patterns are recorded as developed in cases where the nervous tissue has been damaged during embriological development. At that time it was still impossible to posit a casual for the occurrence of any particular pattern alteration in association with either chromosomal anomalies or other clinical syndromes. But even then the authors offered these explanations: 1) failure of nerves to grow into the epithelium may be expressed through dermatoglyphic aplasia (failure to develop); 2) Both qualitative and quantitative deviations of subepithelial nerve branches to form may be evidenced by dermatoglyphic dysplasia (abnormal development); and 3) Where dermatoglyphics are distorted, there may be a disturbance of the spatial arrangement.(127)

By comparison, the neural tube that will develop into the central nervous system and neural crest from which the peripheral nervous system will develop, appears during the third week of gestation. By the fifth week, three main subdivisions of the central nervous system, the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain are evident.(128)

We have speculated on a number of factors that correlate the palmer patterns with the development of the nervous system and account for those patterns being reflective of behavioral reactions. Skin cells and the entire vertebrate nervous system develop from the outer most layer of the early embryo, the ectoderm. The nervous system first appears as a thickened column of epithelial cells known as the neural plate. Shortly after it forms it begins to differentiate along its anterior-posterior axis and folds into the neural tube. During this process the primitive forebrain and midbrain begin to form in the anterior section of the tube while the hindbrain and spinal cord begin to develop to the posterior portion of the tube. What controls this regional identification of the neural plate? Apparently this is controlled by adjacent mesoderm,(129) the precursor of bone, connective tissue, muscle, blood, vascular and lymphatic tissue as well as the pleurae of the pericardium and peritoneum.

This has given rise to the theory that normal development of the nervous system is induced by cells of a special region that has been called the organizer. Recently, in confirming this theory in frogs, two proteins, noggin and follistatin, have been identified with inducing the neural development process. After the induction of the neural plate by signals from the organizer region those cells can then differentiate into neurons and glial cells. After the regional identification of the neural plate, the mesodermal tissues continue to impose organization on the sensory and motor axons in the spinal cord, but segmentation of the hindbrain, and perhaps the midbrain and forebrain are presently believed to result from intrinsic cell reactions within the neural tube.(130)

A number of congenital problems have left their marks on both the brain and the hand. Examples of such associations are the significant increases in palmer single flexion creases ("simian line") and Sydney creases (distal or proximal transverse crease that completely crosses the palm) and mental retardation in a Down syndrom, missing interphalangeal flexion creases in mentally retarded individuals, and "sandal" plantar creases on the soles of those with Down syndrome and Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome.(131) Elevated incidence of Sidney creases have also been observed in children with delayed development, learning difficulties, or minor behavioral problems.(132) Elevated incidence of Sidney lines have also been observed in leukemia,(133) and in environmental congenital rubella and possibly cytomeglaovirus.(134) Other environmental effects were noted to the hand and the palmer creases caused by or related to chemical agents thalidomide, methadone and alcohol.(135) The latter is also related to mental retardation.

Any changes to the normal incidence of transverse creases (Sidney, simian lines and interrupted transverse creases), will occur very early in pregnancy. By about the eighth week of gestation the thenar crease becomes visible starting on the radial side of the hand between the thumb and index finger. Around the ninth week of gestation, the metacarpophalangeal creases (between the palm and the fingers) are visible and the distal interphalangeal crease barely is visible. The thenar crease continues to be visible. As we progress into the tenth week the proximal interphalangeal creases start to become visible. The 12th week brings signs of the distal transverse crease across the palm starting under the area between the index and middle fingers to later extend to the ulnar margin of the palm. By the thirteenth week both the distal and proximal transverse creases are becoming visible and after the 14th week of gestation at the 15th week all palmer creases can be clearly seen. The onset for spontaneous movement of the hand has not been reported until about the middle of the 11th week of pregnancy and fetuses are reported to begin to tightly grasp at 16 to 20 weeks.(136) It would therefore appear that the palmer creases are genetically rather than mechanically induced. It is also interesting to note that Hale observed that dermal ridge differentiation also advances "progressively from the apical pads proximally and in the radio-ulnar (or tibio-fibular) direction."(137)

We find in interesting to note that the progress of the development of these creases is from the radial to the ulnar side of the hand. We would suspect that Hales observations of similar development of fingerprints accurate, though we would believe that the development of the print on number 4 finger (the ring finger) may, at least at times, precede that of the print on finger three (the middle finger) because of the higher incidence of whorls on the ring finger as compared with the middle finger. However, this may be related to the size of the volar pads and the fact that the ring and index finger are often the same size. Still, one often finds whorls on the ring finger and not on the index finger. Ulnar loops are the most common finger print. And whorls are least common on the little finger and next on the middle finger. They are much more common on the thumbs, index fingers and ring fingers.

Certain elevated frequency of patterns of the epidermal ridges have also been observed in relation to rubella, cytomeglaovirus, and alcohol embryopathy.(138) If this were to hold true in cases coupled with higher elevation of unusual early palmer creases, this could support a hypothesis of an earlier onset of any genetic factors involved in the formation of epidermal ridge patterns.

The relationship of genotypes to phenotypes appears as one of the most promising current area of study to understand the correspondence of hand markings to neurophysiological development. Breakthroughs in the 1990's in the study of genetic conservation of sequence, equivalence of expression and functional homology not only cross species but also from cell to cell(139) are promising to furnish us with the actual shared messengers or triggers that are responsible for patterning of the neurological structures as well as the skin on the palm.

We believe that both line and epidermal ridge patterning in the foetus may be strongly dependent upon the highly conserved genes that belong to the developmental pathways which function in a variety of diverse cells at different developmental stages are not only good candidates for molecular defects underlying some multi-organ syndromes,(140) but are also good candidates for being involved in patterning of the lines and ridges. So we might look to homebox containing Pax genes that may also be related to specification of neural cell differentiation, or perhaps the Sonic hedgehog (shh) and hepatocyte nuclear factor-3 (HNF-3) which are both expressed in the notochord and later in the floor plate.(141) The Hox genes, or at least their combinational expression, that play a role in the development of the spinal cord and hindbrain development, may also play a role in the midbrain and forebrain.(142) The sonic hedgehog (shh), retinoic acid and its receptors and the homeobox genes are also implicated in the establishment of skin fields, that are also related to well defined programs of pattern formation not only in the CNS but also in the axial skeleton, and the limb buds.(143)

The concept of developmental field is also under current study in connection with both normal and abnormal skin development.(144) Observations accepting the existence of such fields interrelate anatomically distinct structures through co-ordinate development and, because of the immense content of gene interaction within the field, a set of tissues formed in the early stages of embryonic development can react identically to different dysmorphogenetic causes. This may be why some observations of line formations and dermatoglyphic patterns can be related to several mental and physical conditions. This may help us to better understand when, in the developmental process, actual normal and abnormal traits are set up in the subject.


Alberto Damasio recently observed while medical students study the sick mind to learn about psychopathology they are not taught about normal psychology. (145) What we find in the study of the hand that a state of normal psychology varies from person to person. The psychological character reactions that aid homeostasis in one individual do not necessarily promote healthy survival in another. Given this, it is vital in modern medicine that the medical community have the tools available to it to individualize care based upon individual homeostatic needs and modern scientific hand analysis, taking into account the contributions of observant palmists, can help establish those needs in medical, educational, and career planning.

Those using dermatoglyphics in biology and medicine have long been interested in abnormal psychology and congenital defects. Amrita Bagga surveyed and studied the subject of the dermatoglyphic patterns of schizophrenics.(146) W Hirsch could report in 1978 that studies had been performed in relationship to mental retardation, congenital heart defects, diabetes mellitus, several child psychiatric groups, retarded growth, and a number of syndromes.(147) Hirsch found clear relationships. Autosomal trisomies, Trisomy 21 (Downs Syndrome), Trisomy 13 and 18 and trisomy 8 (Mosaicism) have long been the subjected to studies in relationship to dermatoglyphic patterns.(148) And in addition to the trisomy, diabetes mellitus, congenital heart defect and schizophrenia subjects, Danuta Z. Loesch also reports relationship studies with sexual chromosomal anomalies, spina bifida, cleft lip and palate, leukemia and other conditions.(149)

Surprisingly little work can be found in the study of normal psychology and relationships to dermatoglyphic patterns in the MEDLINE indices. This is despite the fact that personality and psychopathology are considered inextricably intertwined hence the multiaxial model of patient diagnosis first adopted in DSM III (and perpetuated in DSM IV).(150)

img src="images/PalmD-History/img4.gif" width="527" height="211" align="right" >The most tantalizing piece is the work of A. C. Bogle, T. Reed and R. J. Rose. They published in 1994(151) their replication of a study first published in 1987 relating to the combined use of dermatoglyphics and the MMPI tests. The tests indicated that identical twin subjects with asymmetric (dissimilar) patterns on their left and right hands were more likely to suffer from environmental distresses (as opposed to genetic distresses) than identical twins who had symmetric patterns. Twins with asymmetric palmer patterns studied were considered to have poorer genetic buffering against environmental factors than those with symmetrical corresponding palmer patterns. Those with the asymmetrical patterns exhibited "heightened developmental sensitivity to extraneous environmental stress." The researchers stated that if the asymmetrical subjects had been part of a psychiatric population the recorded personality dimensions would have related to those concerns over physical health and behaviors that are often associated with anxiety and/or depression. Their findings suggested such persons had "poorer genetic buffering" and environmental sensitivity differences could be manifested in clinically correlative behaviors of anxiety or depression and physical complaints.(152)

These conclusions were reached based upon the counting of the dermal ridge lines between the apices, the center of the triradii, below the second and third fingers on each hand (Figure 26, the a and b triradii) and comparing the count. In the Bogle et al study, asymmetry (dissimilarity) was found when the count difference in the number of ridges between the left and right hand measurements was 7 or more. Symmetry was found when the difference in ridge count was 3 or less. The authors noted that these cut off numbers might change for singletons (non identical twins).

What is clear from all of this is that there is more than ample evidence to support the systematic study and analysis of basic personality characteristics and the dermatoglyphic features of the hand that we propose to do. No mind, including the human mind, starts as a tabula rasa. The mind starts with a genetic 'tool kit' of development retained over many millions of years. This tool kit not only specifies the pattern of development of the brain but the pattern of development of the hand and the palm. Genetic conservation of sequence, equivalence of expression and functional homology create a cross reference code between the two organs and indeed between the cell formation throughout the whole. And it says in Job 37:7 of the King James version of the bible He [God] sealeth up the hand of every man; that all men may know his work. We can now really begin to read the seals.

1. Joannes Evangelista Purkinge, "Physiological Examination of the Visual Organ and of the Cutaneous System" (Commentatio de Examine Physiologico Organi Visus et Systematis Cutanei) Breslau: Vratisaviae Typis Universitatis, 1823. (Translated into English by Cummins, H, and R.W. Kennedy, Am.J.Crim.Law.Criminol. vol 31, pp. 343-356, 1940)
2. Grew's presentation to the Royal Society in 1684 cited by Harold Cummins and Charles Midlo, Finger Prints, Palms and Soles An Introduction To Dermatoglyphics, ©1943 The Blakiston Company, Philadelphia, p. 11
3. G. Bidloo, Anatomy Humani Corporis, Amsterdam, 1685
4. M. Malpighius, De externo tactus organo, London, 1686.
5. Cummins and Midlo, Finger Prints, Palms and Soles An Introduction To Dermatoglyphics, supra., pp. 11-15. The works of Hintze 1747 and Albinus 1764 were briefly mentioned. J. C. A. Mayer's work Anatomische Kupfertafeln nebst dazu gehörigen Erklörungen, 1783-1788, last section on fingerprints, 1788 is cited for the observation that the skin ridge patterns are never duplicated in two persons though they have certain likenesses. J. F. Schröeter is cited for his illustrations of the organization of ridges and pours and the morphology of the skin of the palm in his work of 1814 published in Leipzig: Das menschliche Gefühl oder Organ des Gestastes. Bell is cited for his contribution, The Hand, to the Bridgewater Treatise on The Power, Wisdome, and Goodness of God, as Manifest in the Creation 1833 wherein he observed clearly two functional advantages of epidermal ridges, increased friction aiding firmer grasp and the aid to the sense of touch.
6. H. Faulds, On the Skin furrows of the hand Nature 22:605 (October 28, 1880) and W. J. Herschel Skin furrows of the hand Nature 23:76 (November 25, 1880).
7. Sir Francis Galton, Fingerprints. London: MacMillan & Co.
8. Norris M. Durham and Chris C. Plato, editors, Trends in Dermatoglyphic Research, © 1990 Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht/Boston/London, p. 4.
9. Harold Cummins and Charles Midlo, Finger Prints, Palms and Soles An Introduction To Dermatoglyphics, ©1943 The Blakiston Company, Philadelphia, p. 19.
10. Harris Hawthorne Wilder, Palms and soles. A,. J. Anat 1902, 1:423-441; Racial differences in palm and sole configuration, Am. Anthropologist 1904 6:244-293; Duplicate Twins and double monsters (part only), Am J. Anat. 1904, 3:426-472; Palm and sole studies, 1916, Biol Bull 30:135-172, 211-252.
11. Inez L. Whipple-Wilder, The Ventral Surface of the Mammalian Chiridium J. Morph Anthropol 1904, 49:153-221.
12. Kristine Bonnevie, Studies on palillary patterns of human fingers, J Genet 1924 15:1-111.
13. Norris M. Durham and Chris C. Plato, editors, Trends in Dermatoglyphic Research, © 1990 Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht/Boston/London, p. 6.
14. Harold Cummins and Charles Midlo, Palmar and Plantar Epidermal Configurations (Dermatoglyphics) in Eurpoean Americans, Am J Phys Anthropol, 1926 9:471-502.
15. Harold Cummins, H. H. Keith, Charles Midlo, R. G. Montgomery, Harris Hawthorne Wilder, Inez Whipple-Wilder, Revised methods of interpreting and formulating palmar dermatoglyphics, Am J. Phys Anthropol 1929, 12:415-473.
16. Harold Cummins and Charles Midlo, Finger Prints, Palms and Soles An Introduction To Dermatoglyphics, ©1943 The Blakiston Company, Philadelphia.
17. Ibid, p. 9-10.
18. Ibid, p. 280-281. Quotes from T. Kubo Beiträge zur Daktyloskopie der Koreaner, Mitt. Med. Fachschule Keijo, pp. 117-223, 1918; pp. 1-63, 1919; pp. 1-150, 1921.
19. L. S. Penrose, Fingerprints and Palmistry, The Lancet, June 2, 1973, p. 1241. Penrose displays an arrogant ignorance in his 1973 remarks that "in the whole range of the cheiromantic cult, no use of the fine dermal ridges by which the science of dermatoglyphics is concerned..." is mentioned "except sometimes cursorily in the literature." He ignores the works of his contemporaries Jaquin, Compton, Scheimann and Hutchinson who all wrote for those interested in the cheiromantic cult. Yet Beyrl B. Hutchinson was familiar with Penrose's work while he was at the Galton Laboratory, Your Life in Your Hands Neville Spearman, Ltd., London, 1967, p. 96.
20. Dermatoglyphics, An International Perspective, Jamshed Mavalwala, Editor, 1978, Moulton Publishers, The Hague - Paris, Aldine, Chicago, USA distributors, p. 19.
21. Harold Cummins and Charles Midlo, Finger Prints, Palms and Soles An Introduction To Dermatoglyphics, ©1943 The Blakiston Company, Philadelphia, p. 9.
22. Samudrik Tilak M. Katakkar, Encyclopedia of Palm and Palm Reading, ©1992 UBS Publishers' Distributors, Ltd., New Delhi, pp. 114 - 116.
23. Saint-Germain, Comte C. de, (Valcourt-Vermont, Edgar de), The Practice of Palmistry for Professional Purposes, Chicago, 1897 Newcastle Publishing, London, reprint 1973.
24. Benham, William G., The Laws of Scientific Hand Reading, ©1900, Knickerbocker Press, New York Health Research, Mokelumne Hill, CA reprint of the January, 1912 printing. p 194-195.
25. United States Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, The Science of Fingerprints, Classifications and Uses,(Rev. 12-84) U.S.G.P.O., pp. 11-18 especially, see also for example: Frederick Kuhne, The Fingerprint Instructor, 1917, Munn & Company, Inc, New York, especially page 34; and Harry Battley, Single Finger Prints, 1930 New Scotland Yard (H. M. Stationary Office), especially 33-37.
26. 39 Larchwood House, Baywood Square, Chigwell Essex, 1G7 4AY U.K., phone 0181 500 8315, Hon. Harry G. Gullefer, Secretary.
27. Noel Jaquin, The Hand of Man, Faber & Faber Ltd, London, 1934 pp. 44-46.
28. Noel Jaquin, The Signature of Time, 1940, Faber & Faber, Ltd., London, pp. 87-96. See also Noel Jaquin, The Hand Speaks, Your Health, Your Sex, Your Life, 1942, Lindoe & Fisher, London. My copy Sagar Publications, New Delhi, India, 1973, pp. 15, 19. Noel Jaquin, Practical Palmistry, Originally published as "The Human Hand" D. B. Taraporevala Sons & Co. Private Ltd, Bombay, India, 1958, 1964 pp. 157-162.
29. Vera Compton, Palmistry for Everyman, Associated Booksellers, Westport, Conn., 1951, 1956, pp. 40-43.
30. Yusuke Miyamoto, Fingerprints, © 1963, translated by Saki Mochizuki and Michael Whitington, Japan Publications Trading Company, Tokyo, Japan and Rutland, Vt., U.S.A.
31. Hutchinson, B. Beryl, Your Life in Your Hands, Sphere Books, Ltd., London, 1967., p. 89.
32. Ibid pp. 89-125.
33. Eugene Scheimann, M.D., The Doctors's Guide to Better Health Through Palmistry, Parker Publishing, 1969. pp. 59-76.
34. Beverly C. Jaegers, You and Your Hand ©1974 Aries Productions Creve Coeur, Mo. and Hand Analysis, Fingerprints and Skin Patterns-dermatoglyphics ©1974 Aries Productions St. Louis, Mo. Ms. Jaegers has assured me that she came to her interpretations based upon the many palms and fingerprints she examined and did not depend upon the work of others, including Ms. Hutchinson.
35. Fred Gettings, The Book of The Hand, © 1965, reprint 1968, Paul Hamlyn, Ltd., pp. 115-119.
36. Elizabeth Brenner, The Hand Book, Celestial Arts, Berkeley, CA, 1980, pp. 79 - 88.
37. Dennis Fairchild, The Handbook of Humanistic Palmistry, Thumbs Up! Publications, Ferndale, Mich., 1980. pp. 55 - 65.
38. Carol Hellings White, Holding Hands, The Complete Guide to Palmistry, G. P. Putnam Sons U.S.A. and Academic Press, Toronto, Canada, 1980., pp. 57-60.
39. David Brandon-Jones, Practical Palmistry, CRCS Publications, Reno, NV, 1986, pp. 132-137.
40. , Enid Hoffman, Hands, A Complete Guide to Palmistry, Para Research, Inc., Glouster, MA, 1985, pp. 221 - 237.
41. Darlene Hansen, Secrets of the Palm, 1984, ACS Publications, Inc., San Diego, Ca., 1985, pp. 22-27.
42. Hachiro Asano, Hands, The Complete Book of Palmistry, Japan Publications, Inc., Tokyo and New York, 1985, pp 120-123.
43. Andrew Fitzherbert, Hand Psychology, Angus & Robertson, London, 1986, pp. 246 - 254.
44. Sasha Fenton and Malcolm Wright, The Living Hand, Aquarian Press, Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, 1986, pp. 42-45 and Palmistry, How To Discover Success, Love and Happiness, 1996, Crescent Books, N.Y., p. 52.
45. Shifu Terence Dukes , Chinese Hand Analysis, Samuel Weiser, Inc., 1987. pp.107-118. Dukes, also know as Shifu Nagaboshi Tomio has a web site on his version of Chinese palmistry at
46. Nathaniel Altman, and Eugene Scheimann, M.D. Medical Palmistry, A Doctor's Guide to Better Health Through Hand Analysis,©1989, Aquarian Press, Thorsons Publishing Group, Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, pp 57-74.
47. Nathan Altman has his own web page, Nathaniel Altman and Andrew Fitzherbert, Career, Success and Self Fulfillment, How Scientific Handreading Can Change Your Life, The Aquarian Press, Thorsons Publishing Group, 1988.
48. Paul Gabriel Tesla, The complete Science of Hand Reading, 1991, Osiris Press, Lakeland. Florida, and Crime & Mental Disease In The Hand, ©1991, Osiris Press, Lakeland. Florida.
49. Rita Robinson, Health In Your Hands, A New Look At Modern Palmistry and Your Health, ©1993, Newcastle Publishing, P.O. Box 7589, Van Nuys, CA 91409, pp. 85-97.
50. Richard Webster, Revealing Hands, How To Read Palms, ©1994, Llewellyn Publications, St. Paul, MN., pp. 210-216.
51. Moshé Zwang, Palm Therapy, Program Your Mind Through Your Palms, 1995, Ultimate Mind Publisher, Los Angeles, CA., pp. 377-382. Moshe has a web page, , for those interested in his work.
52. Xiao-Fan Zong and Gary Liscum, Chinese Medical Palmistry, Your Health in Your Hand, ©1995 Blue Poppy Press, 1775 Linden Ave., Boulder, CO 80304, pp 26-30.
53. Ray Douglas, Palmistry and The Inner Self, 1995, Blandford, A Cassell Imprint, pp. 20-25.
54. Lori Reid, The Art of Hand Reading (1996) DK Publishing, NY., pp. 46-49.
55. Edward D. Campbell, The Encyclopedia of Palmistry,©1996, A Perigee Book, Berkley Publishing Group, New York, N.Y., pp. 98-124.
56. Charlotte Wolff, The Human Hand, Alfred A. Knopf, 1943.
57. Arnold Holtzman, Applied Handreading, (1983) The Greenwood Chase Press, Toronto. Also see his web page <>
58. Yale Haft-Pomrock, Hands, Aspects of Opposition and Complementarity in Archetypal Palmistry,© 1992 Daimon Verlag, Am Klosterplaz, Einsiedeln, Switzerland.
59. Carl Gustav Carus, ber Grund und Bedeutung der verschiedenen Formen der Hand, in Verschiedenen Personem, Stutgart, 1848, and Die Symbolik der menschlichen Gestalt. Ein Handbuch zur Menschen-Kenntnis, Leipzig, 1853.
60. N. Vaschide, Essai sur la Psychologie de la main. Paris: Rivière Marcel (Bibliothèque de Philosophie Expérimentale), 1909.
61. Ernst Kretschmer, Körperbau und Charakter, pp. 21-6 and 84. Berlin 1931.
62. Adolph Friedemann, Handbau und Psychosis, Arch. F. Neur. u. Psych. 1928.
63. Sorell, Walter, The Story of the Human Hand, The Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1967.
64. Wolff, Charlotte, The Human Hand, Alfred A. Knopf, 1943; and The Hand in Psychological Diagnosis, Methuen & Co., Ltd., 1951.
65. King, Francis, Palmistry, Your Fate and Fortune in Your Hand, 1976, Cresent Books distributed by Crown Publishers, New York, N.Y. 10003, 1987.
66. Asano, Hachiro, Hands, The Complete Book of Palmistry, Japan Publications, Inc., Tokyo and New York, 1985.
67. Körperbau und Charakter, E. Kretschmer, Berlin, 1931.
68. Noel Jaquin, The Hand of Man,, Faber & Faber Ltd, London, 1934, pp. 44-48.
69. Noel Jaquin, The Signature of Time, 1940, Faber & Faber, Ltd., London. pp. 85-95; Jaquin, Noel, The Hand Speaks, Your Health, Your Sex, Your Life, 1942, Lindoe & Fisher, London. My copy Sagar Publications, New Delhi, India, 1973.. pp. 15, 19.
70. Noel Jaquin, Practical Palmistry, Originally published as "The Human Hand", 1958. D. B. Taraporevala Sons & Co. Private Ltd, Bombay, India, 1964, pp. 159-161.
71. Vera Compton, Palmistry for Everyman, Associated Booksellers, Westport, Conn., 1951, 1956, pp. 40-43.
72. Fred Gettings, The Book of The Hand, © 1965, reprint 1968, Paul Hamlyn, Ltd., pp. 115-119.
73. Beryl B. Hutchinson, Your Life in Your Hands, Neville Spearman, Ltd., London, 1967, pp. 92-107.
74. Your Life in Your Hands, supra, pp. 106-125.
75. Eugene Scheimann, M.D., The Doctors's Guide to Better Health Through Palmistry, Parker Publishing, 1969., pp. 59-76.
76. Yusuke Miyamoto, Fingerprints, © 1963, translated by Saki Mochizuki and Michael Whitington, Japan Publications Trading Company, Tokyo, Japan and Rutland, Vt., U.S.A.
77. Lee Siow Mong, The Chinese Art of Studying the Head, Face and Hands, ©1989 Tan Sri Lee Siow Mong, Pelanduk Publications (M) Sdn Bhd, 24, Jalan 20/16A, 46300 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia, p. 73.
78. Jaegers, supra., You and Your Hand, p. 30 Hand Analysis, Fingerprints and Skin Patterns-dermatoglyphics pp. 43-44.
79. Fairchild, supra., The Handbook of Humanistic Palmistry, pp. 49-52.
80. Jaegers, supra., You and Your Hand, pp. 5-15.
81. Cummins and Midlo, supra., Finger Prints, Palms and Soles An Introduction To Dermatoglyphics, pp. 84-119, 115.
82. Jaegers, supra., You and Your Hand, p. 8.
83. Elizabeth Brenner, The Hand Book, pp. 82-88.
84. Dennis Fairchild, The Handbook of Humanistic Palmistry, pp. 55-65.
85. Cummins and Midlo, Finger Prints, Palms and Soles, supra. p. 67.
86. Fairchild, Dennis, Palm Reading, A New Guide to a Mysterious Art, ©1996 Running Press ©Illustrations 1996 Melanie Powell, Courage Books imprint of Running Press Book Publishers, 125 S. 22nd St., Philadelphia, PA 19103-4399, see pp. 39-42.
87. Carol Hellings White, Holding Hands, The Complete Guide to Palmistry, supra., pp. 57-59.
88. David Brandon-Jones, Practical Palmistry, supra., pp. 132-137.
89. Enid Hoffman, Hands, A Complete Guide to Palmistry, supra., pp. 221-237.
90. Ibid., at 234.
91. Darlene Hansen, Secrets of the Palm, supra., pp. 22-27.
92. Hachiro Asano, Hands, The Complete Book of Palmistry, supra., pp. 120-126.
93. Andrew Fitzherbert, Hand Psychology, supra., pp. 171-177.
94. Ibid, pp. 180, 246-254.
95. Hutchinson, Your Life in Your Hands, supra, p. 113.
96. Sasha Fenton and Malcolm Wright, The Living Hand, supra., pp. 42-45; and Palmistry, How To Discover Success, Love and Happiness, 1996, Crescent Books, N.Y., p. 52.
97. Shifu Terence Dukes, Chinese Hand Analysis, supra., pp. 107-118.
98. Nathaniel Altman and Eugene Scheimann, M.D. Medical Palmistry, A Doctor's Guide to Better Health Through Hand Analysis, supra..
99. Nathaniel Altman and Andrew Fitzherbert, Career, Success and Self Fulfillment, How Scientific Handreading Can Change Your Life, supra..
100. Career, Success and Self Fulfillment, supra., pp. 21-23.
101. Paul Gabriel Tesla, The Complete Science of Hand Reading, and Crime & Mental Disease In The Hand, supra..
102. Samudrik Tilak M. Katakkar, Encyclopedia of Palm and Palm Reading, ©1992 UBS Publishers' Distributors, Ltd., New Delhi, pp. 107-117 and 151-152.
103. Rita Robinson, Health In Your Hands, A New Look At Modern Palmistry and Your Health, supra., 85-97.
104. Moshé Zwang, Palm Therapy, Program Your Mind Through Your Palms, pp. 378-382.
105. Xiao-Fan Zong and Gary Liscum, Chinese Medical Palmistry, Your Health in Your Hand, supra., pp. 26-30.
106. Ray Douglas, Palmistry and The Inner Self, supra., pp. 20-25.
107. Sasha Fenton and Malcolm Wright, Palmistry, How To Discover Success, Love and Happiness, supra., p. 52.
108. Lori Reid, The Art of Hand Reading, supra., pp. 46-49.
109. This writer has four very well formed and centrally located, perhaps even five, peacock's eyes, including two on the little fingers, one on the right ring finger, one on the left middle finger and one in a reverse loop on the left thumb. He is right handed. All of the eyes form as pockets of ulnar loops and are part of the reason why he studies the palm. He has also walked away from several serious auto accidents and other traumas.
110. Edward D. Campbell. See also his own book, The Encyclopedia of Palmistry, supra., 98-124.
111. Eugene Scheimann, M.D., The Doctors's Guide to Better Health Through Palmistry, supr., p. 59.
112. The Hand As A Mirror Of Systemic Disease, Theodore J. Berry, M.D., F.A.C.P., F. A. Davis Company, Publishers, Philadelphia, 1963, for early development of dermatoglyphic patterns see also Dermatoglyphics in Medical Disorders, by B. Schaumann and M. Alter (1976) New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 187 - 189.
113. Dermatoglyphics in Medical Disorders, Blanka Schaumann, Milton Alter, Springer-Verlag, 1976, pp. 1 - 7.
114. Schaumann and Alter, supra., pp. 209-211, 250-251.
115. Schaumann and Alter, supra., pp. 132-133.
116. William J. Babler, Prenatal Communalities in Epidermal Ridge Development, pp. 54-68 in Trends in Dermatoglyphic Research, edited by Norris M. Durham and Chris C. Plato, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/London/Boston © 1990. (Vol 1, Studies in Human Biology)
117. A. R. Hale, Morphogenesis of volar skin in the human fetus. 1951, Am. J. Anat 91:147-173.
118. ibid, n. 64, pp. 64-68.
119. Schaumann and Alter, supra., pp. 2-3.
120. Schaumann and Alter, supra., p. 1.
121. Schaumann and Alter, supra., pp. 137-142.
122. William J. Babler, Prenatal Communalities in Epidermal Ridge Development, supra n. 64, p. 67 referring to S. M. Garn, W. J. Babler & A. R. Burdi, Prenatal origins of brachymesophalangia-5. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. (1976) 91: 147-173
123. Ibid. p. 67.
124. K. Bonnevie, Zur Mechanik der Papillarmusterbuldung. I. Die Epidermis als fromativer faktor in der entwicklung der fingerbeeren und der Papillarmuster. Arch. Entwickl. Organ., (1929) 117:384.
125. W. Hirsch and J. U. Schweichel, Morphological evidence concerning the problem of skin ridge formation.J. Ment. Defic. Res., 17:58, 1973.
126. Ibid. They confirm that the volar pads on the index and middle fingers are visible in the second month. They relate the symmetry or asymmetry of the pads and their development to whether whorls, loops or arches may be expected, with symmetrical = whorls, asymmetrical = loops and weak pad development = arches. They indicate that the pad shape is genetically set though environmentally modified. When crown rump length reaches about 90 mm (4th month) the first distinct, sharply delineated fold like proliferations appear in the epidermis and these are later perceived as glandular folds. These glandular folds bear a close spacial relationship with the distribution of capillary-neurite pairs. On the basis of the pattern of these glandular folds, they predicted that the forces of the growth pressure of these folds, the trajectory of the system of the epidermis and the glandular ducts would determine the highly arranged surface pattern of the papillary ridges. The final expression of genetic information in the form of surface patterns would be modified by environmental influences. Glandular folds , proliferations of cells from the epidermis that make their way into the mesenchyme (dermis) and form from the lateral distal borders of the distal phalanx to the medial proximal part of that phalanx and forming a Horshoe-shaped border on the fingertip. Folds continue to be formed at the periphery until the pad surface is entirely covered. This process occurs on the proximal phalanges beginning in the fifth month. During the fifth month the sweat glands set and the glandular ducts reach the surface in the sixth month. During the later course of development of the glandular folds, the volar pads become increasingly less prominent while the connective tissue becomes richer in collagen and denser. Secondary furrow fold formation is seen in the sixth and seventh month but it has either slight or no effect on the formation of the papillary ridge pattern. The papillary ridges on the surface skin molded by the glandular fold cell proliferation after the formation of glandular folds, sweat gland secretion and keratinisation has begun, after the sixth month.

The authors speculate that three factors may possibly accomplish the transfer of the deep patterns to the skin surface: 1) proliferation pressure from the increased mitotic rate of the basal cell layer; 2) stabilization of the sweat gland secretion ducts at regular intervals on the surface; and, 3) by some counteracting force as a result of the first two forces, exerted by the tonofilament system, the system of fine filaments in the cytoplasm of each cell that function as supportive elements within the cytoskeleton and form the main precursors of keratin in the epithelium. They conclude that the pattern of the papillary ridges is set after the development of the glandular folds, after the forth month.
127. Ibid. P. 69.
128. Richard E. Behrman, M.D., Robert M. Kleigman, M.D. and Ann . Arvin, M.D., Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 15th Edition © 1996, p. 34, W. B. Saunders Company, division of Harcourt Braced & Company, Philadelphia/London/Toronto/ Montreal/ Sidney/Tokyo.
129. Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz and Thomas M. Jessel, Essentials of Neural Science and Behavior, © 1995, Appelton & Lange, Norwalk, Connecticut, pp. 94-95.
130. Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz and Thomas M. Jessel, Essentials of Neural Science and Behavior, supra., pp. 94-95.
131. Sumiko Kimura, Blanka A. Schaumann, Chris C. Plato and Tadashi Kitagawa, Developmental Aspects of Human Palmar, Plantar, and Digital Flexion Creases, in Trends in Dermatoglyphic Research, edited by Norris M. Durham and Chris C. Plato, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/London/Boston © 1990. (Vol 1, Studies in Human Biology), p. 84.
132. Schaumann and Alter, supra., p. 109.
133. Schaumann and Alter, supra., p. 109.
134. Yog R. Ahuja, Chris C. Plato, Effect of Environmental Pollutants on Dermatoglyphics in Trends in Dermatoglyphic Research, supra., pp. 125-128.
135. Ibid pp. 129-132.
136. Sumiko Kimura, et. al., supra, pp. 84-98
137. A. R. Hale, Morphogenesis of volar skin in the human fetus. 1951, Am. J. Anat 91:147-157.
138. Yog R. Ahuja and Chris C. Plato, supra.
139. Peter Thorogood, The Relationship Between Genotype and Phenotype: Some Basic Concepts, in Embryos, Genes and Birth Defects, supra., pp. 1-16.
140. Anne Reeves Haake and Lowell A. Goldsmith, The Skin in Embryos, Genes and Birth Defects, supra., pp. 251-280 (275).
141. Andrew J. Copp, The Neural Tube, in Embryos, Genes and Birth Defects, supra., pp. 133-152 (145-146)
142. Peter Thorogood, The Head and Face, in Embryos, Genes and Birth Defects, ©1997, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, Weinheim, New York, Brisbane, Singapore, Toronto, pp. 197-229 (209-219)
143. Anne Reeves Haake and Lowell A. Goldsmith, The Skin in Embryos, Genes and Birth Defects, supra., pp. 251-280 (269-70).
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145. Albert R. Damasio, Descartes' Error, Emotion Reason and the Human Brain, ©1994, Grosset/Putnam Book, New York, p. 255,
146. Amrita Bagga, Dermatoglyphics of Schizophrenics, 1989, Mittal Publications, New Delhi, India.
147. W. Hirsch, Dermatoglyphics and Creases in Their Relationship to Clinical syndromes: A Diagnostic Criterion. pp. 263-282 in Jamshed Mavalwala, Editor, Dermatoglyphics, An International Perspective, 1978, Moulton Publishers, The Hague/Paris.
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149. Loesch, ibis pp. 291-330.
150. Theodore Millon & Roger D. Davis, The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventroy-III (MCMI-III), in Major Psychological Assessment Instruments 2nd Ed. Pp. 108-147, Charles S. Newmark Ed. Allyn & Bacon, © 1985-1996
151. A. C. Bogle, T. Reed, and R. J. Rose, Replication of Asymmetry of a-b Ridge Count and Behavioral Discordance in Monozygotic Twins, Behavior Genetics, 24 (1) Jan. 1994, pp. 65-72.
152. ibid. p. 69.

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